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Umbar

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This article is about the Haven of Umbar. For the Quenya word, see umbar.
Umbar
Haven
Turner Mohan - Umbar.jpg
"Umbar" by Turner Mohan
General Information
Other namesCity of the Corsairs
LocationThe coasts of Middle-earth, to the south of Gondor and west of Harad
TypeHaven
DescriptionNatural harbour of enclosing rock used as a seaport
People and History
InhabitantsVariously held by the Númenóreans, the Black Númenóreans, the Gondorians, the Corsairs and the Haradrim
CreatedFirst fortified in S.A. 2280[1]
EventsAr-Pharazôn captures Sauron
Kin-Strife
Corsair Wars
Surprise Attack on Umbar
GalleryImages of Umbar

Umbar was a great haven to the far south of Gondor in Middle-earth.

Contents

Geography

Umbar was located south of the outflow of Anduin at the Bay of Belfalas in a convenient, useful natural haven. The great cape and land-locked firth formed the port. The natives called it "Umbar" and the Númenóreans who discovered it, adopted its name.

Umbar was the nearest to Gondor of the southern realms. It may ultimately have stretched all along Harnen as far as the Ephel Dúath up to the edge of Khand.[2]

History

Foundation and Númenórean Rule

Like the earlier New Haven in Enedwaith, and the later Pelargir on the Anduin, Umbar was one of the trading ports at the southern coast of Middle-earth, which became a base from which Númenórean influence spread over Middle-earth. In S.A. 2280 it was made into a great fortress as a reaction to the growing threat of Sauron[1] and became the strongest and most important.

During the dissension arising when the Shadow fell on Númenor, Umbar was the northernmost settlement of the King's Men; Sauron, after trying to break the waxing Númenórean grip by instigation, attempted to attack the Númenórean havens and forts, invaded their coastlands, but Umbar resisted.[3][4]

It was at Umbar that Ar-Pharazôn the Golden landed in S.A. 3261 to challenge Sauron and journeyed 7 days with banner and trumpet.[5] Umbar remained a symbol of Númenórean pride ever after.

While Sauron was in Númenor and the Shadow and dissidence became greater, Umbar was one of the fortresses and dwellings upon the coasts, inhabited by the King's Men and servants in Middle-earth to his will; these evil lords concentrated mostly to the south, far from the dominion of Gil-galad.[5] Umbar must have been an important point of deportation of slaves and taxes to Númenor.

After the Downfall of Númenor, Umbar remained in the hands of the Númenóreans, in essence a realm-in-exile alongside Arnor and Gondor. But unlike these others, Umbar had been used by the Black Númenóreans, who were not friendly to the Elves or to their fellow Faithful Númenórean survivors.

Two Black Númenórean lords, Herumor and Fuinur, were probably from Umbar, as at the end of Second Age they became very powerful amongst the Haradrim, a neighbouring people. No doubt, Númenóreans of Umbar were enlisted with Sauron in S.A. 3429. Their fate is unknown, but they likely shared Sauron's defeat at the hands of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men.

The rulers of Umbar retained much influence over the Haradwaith well into Third Age. Other southern settlements were absorbed by the native cultures of Harad.[6]

Gondor's power, however, eclipsed that of Umbar as the Third Age progressed, and at one point, perhaps around the time of Tarannon Falastur, Umbar acknowledged the sway of Gondor.[7] Tarannon had a diplomatic marriage to Berúthiel, a Black Númenórean, perhaps from Umbar. During his reign, Tarannon extended the sway of Gondor along the southern shore-lands.

Umbar as part of Gondor

Gondor's King Eärnil I repaired the haven of Pelargir, built a great navy and besieged Umbar by land and by sea.[8] In T.A. 933 he took Umbar.[9] Umbar was only taken at great cost, because its Black Núnmenorean inhabitants as descendants of the King's Men inherited their hatred of Gondor as a realm of the followers of Elendil[10] and probably defended Umbar vehemently. As a result of the capture of Umbar by Gondor, the Black Númenorean lords of Umbar were driven from Umbar and Umbar became a great harbour and fortress of the power of Gondor.[8] Only three years later, in T.A. 936),[11] king Eärnil was lost at sea with many ships and men in a great storm off Umbar.[8]

Eärnil's son Ciryandil continued to build ships.[8] During his reign the Men of the Harad led by the Black Númenorean lords that had been driven from Umbar came with a large force and besieged Umbar.[8] In T.A. 1015 Ciryandil was killed in the siege of Umbar.[12]

The siege of Umbar lasted for many years, but Umbar could not be taken, because of the sea-power of Gondor[13], probably because Umbar could be resupplied and reinforced with ships from Gondor by sea. Ciryandil's son Ciryaher took enough time to gather an army and a navy, came down by land crossing the river Harnen and by sea and utterly defeated the Men of the Harad[13] in T.A. 1050.[14] As a consequence, Ciryaher took the name Hyarmendacil "South-victor" and the kings of the Men of the Harad had to acknowledge the overlordsip of Gondor. During his reign the realm of Gondor extended south to the river Harnen and along the coast to the peninsula and haven of Umbar and the sonst of the kings of the Harad lived as hostages in the court of king Ciryaher.[13]

After the capture of Umbar by Gondor, the Gondorians built a great white pillar on the highest hill of the headland above the Haven as a monument of the submission of Sauron to the Númenorean king Ar-Pharazȏn. The pillar was crowned with a globe of crystal that reflected the rays of the sun and the moon and shone like a bright star that could be seen in clear weather even on the coasts of Gondor or far out upon the western sea.[15]

Umbar and the southern provinces experienced a rebellion during the civil war of Gondor (T.A. 1437-1447); together with the people of Pelargir, Umbar supported the usurper Castamir. When the war had ended, Castamir's sons and their supporters left Pelargir and established themselves at Umbar; from that point on, Umbar remained an enemy of the King.[16]

Corsairs of Umbar

In T.A. 1448,[17] after the sons of Castamir had gathered all the forces that they could in Pelargir, they sailed away to Umbar and established an independent lordship and refuge for all enemies of the king in Umbar.[18] It is possible that the rebels took their wifes and families with them to Umbar, because they had held out long with others of their kin in Pelargir[19] and were able to gather people at Pelargir, because Eldacar had no ships to besiege Pelargir by sea.[18] Umbar remained at war with Gondor and was a threat to the coastlands of Gondor and to all traffic on the sea. The region of South Gondor became a debatable land between the kings of Gondor and the Corsairs of Umbar.[18] As a result of the loss of Umbar the hold of Gondor upon the Men of the Harad was loosened.[20]

After the Kin-strife often close relatives of the kings of Gondor who were suspected for treason or conspiring against the kings fled to Umbar and joined the rebels.[21]

In T.A. 1540, King Aldamir was killed in a war with the Harad and the Corsairs of Umbar.[22]

In T.A. 1551, his son[23] Hyarmendacil II defeated the Men of the Harad.[24]

In T.A. 1634,[25] the Corsairs of Umbar led by Castamir's great-grandsons Angamaitë and Sangahyando ravaged Pelargir and killed King Minardil, the son of King Eldacar.[26]

During the reign of king Telumehtar, Minardil's great-grand nephew, the Corsairs raided the coasts of Gondor as far as the Anfalas. As a consequence, Telumehtar gathered his forces and took Umbar by storm[27] and drove out the Corsairs in T.A. 1810.[28] In that war the last descendants of Castamir died and Telumehtar added the title Umbardacil to his name.[27]

Umbar was again held for a while by the kings of Gondor, but was again lost in the new evils that soon befell Gondor and fell into the hands of the Men of the Harad.[27] It is possible that Umbar was held by the kings of Gondor at least until T.A. 1975. In T.A. 1899[29] king Calimehtar was free from other dangers when he led an army out of Ithilien to the plain of Dagorlad[30] , because the peoples of Harad were at this period engaged in wars and feuds of their own.[31] From T.A. 1899 to T.A. 1944 Gondor enjoyed a respite from war.[32] In T.A. 1944[33] the southern army of Gondor was smaller, because the danger from the south was held to be smaller,[34] because assistance from Umbar for an attack on Ithilien by enemies proceeding from Near Harad was not avaible.[35] In the autumn of T.A. 1973 king Eärnil felt himself sufficiently secure to be able to send aid to Arthedain and sent an army of power for a war of great kings, although it was just a small force of the whole might of Gondor, on so many ships that they could scarcely find harbourage, although they filled the Grey Havens, Harlond and Forlond.[36] It seems unlikely that king Eärnil would have felt sufficiently secure to send away so many ships from Gondor to the aid of Arthedain if he would have feared an attack on Gondor by ships from Umbar. It seems unlikely that Gondor would not have been able to hold Umbar when it still had a fleet and a mighty army, because Umbar could not be taken in the past in the days of Ciryaher during a siege by the Men of Harad that lasted for many years, because of the sea-power of Gondor.[37]

Haradrim rule

In T.A. 2746, the 15th Prince of Dol Amroth was killed by the Corsairs of Umbar.[38]

In T.A. 2758,[39] three great fleets of the Corsairs came up from Umbar and the Harad attacked Gondor and there was war on all the coasts of Gondor. In addition, the Corsairs landed in the mouths of the rivers Lefnui and Isen and joined the Dunlendings, which were under the leadership of Wulf, and invaded Rohan.[40][41]

In T.A. 2885, Umbar supported the Haradrim who claimed Harondor, although this had long "been a debatable land between the Corsairs and the Kings", and when Sauron declared himself openly in T.A. 2951

After the second arising of Sauron, Umbar fell under the domination of his servants and the great white pillar that had been built on the highest hill of the headland above the haven by the followers of Elendil as a monument for the humiliation of Sauron by Ar-Pharazon was thrown down.[42]

In T.A. 2980, Aragorn served steward Ecthelion II as a captain in disguise under the name Thorongil, gathered a small fleet, attacked Umbar by night, burned a great part of the ships of the Corsairs, overthrew the Captain of the Haven in a battle upon the quays and then withdrew his fleet with small losses.[43]

War of the Ring

During the War of the Ring, Umbar had not fully recovered from this, but could still send 50 "great ships" and a number of smaller vessels "beyond count" to raid the coastlands of Gondor, and draw off major forces from the defence of Minas Tirith. They were once again defeated by Aragorn, and the Army of the Dead. With the Fall of Barad-dûr, Umbar, weakened and defeated, finally lost its sovereignty and submitted to the crown of King Elessar.

Culture

Politics and rule

While the Faithful boasted the ethnic purity of the line of their rulers (to the amount of resulting even in a Kin-strife), Umbar allowed their race to swiftly dwindle and merge with the Pre-Númenóreans.[16]

No "King of Umbar" is mentioned to rise, though the Black Númenóreans, who, regarding the Heirs of Elendil as usurpers, certainly considered themselves the representatives of the last legal King of Númenor. One can suppose as a possible explanation that they considered themselves something akin to the temporary Stewards of Gondor, ruling in the true King's absence, until Ar-Pharazôn would return from the West to restore his evil kingdom.[2] It is notable that all four known rulers of Umbar come in pairs, suggesting that perhaps Umbar was traditionally ruled by a duumvirate.

Language

In the course of the Third Age Westron had become the native language of nearly all Men that lived within the borders of the old kingdom of Gondor, including all along the coasts from Umbar northward and inland as far as the Ephel Dúath. At the time of the War of the Ring Westron was still the native tongue in this area.[44][45]

Other versions of the legendarium

The Havens of Umbar and the City of the Corsairs appeared near the bottom edge of the General Map of Middle-earth that was included in earlier editions of The Lord of the Rings, but that is absent from modern editions, which regrettably map a slightly smaller area of the Westlands. A label Havens of Umbar is written on the land south of the bay of Umbar. A label UMBAR runs from the land to the south of the bay of Umbar to the north-eastern end of the bay of Umbar. There is a black square with the label City of the Corsairs at the southern branch of the landward end of the bay of Umbar.

On the First Map of The Lord of the Rings the bay of Umbar runs from its entrance in the south-west to its landward end in the north-east. There is no indication where the City of the Corsairs or the fortress of Umbar is located. A label UMBAR on the area between this unnamed river and a river with the label R. Harnen that runs from three sources in the south-western foothills of the Ephel Dúath to the same position as its mouth on the General Map of Middle-earth has been struck-through. There is an unnamed small island near to the entrance to the bay of Umbar and another unnamed small island near the northern end of the peninsula that forms the northern part of the bay. Haven of Umbar is written in the Belegaer near the bay of Umbar and UMBAR is written on the land to east of the bay with the label running from the south-west to the north-east crossing the unnamed river.

Etymology

Umbar is a name of forgotten origin that was doubtless descended from the days before the ships of the Númenóreans sailed the sea.[46] As such it is in one of the pre-Númenórean languages. Despite the coincidental similarity, the name Umbar is not related to the Quenya word for fate umbar.[47]

See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age"
  2. 2.0 2.1 http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Fr_Umbar.html
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VI. The Tale of Years of the Second Age"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "V. The History of the Akallabêth"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Window on the West"
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for king Eärnil I
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 933
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", footnote relating to the entry for king Eärnil's taking of Umbar
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 936
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for the year 1015
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for king Ciryaher
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1050
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry after the fligh of the sons of Castamir to Umbar
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named annals
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1448
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry after the death of Castamir
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry with the death of Castamir
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry following the flight of the sons of Castamir to Umbar
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry following the death of king Eärnur
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1540
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Southern Line: Heirs of Anarion", entry for Hyarmendacil II (Vinyarion)
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1551
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1634
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for king Telemnar
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for king Telumehtar
  28. T.A. 1810, entry for the year 1810
  29. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age" entry for the year 1899
  30. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "(i) The Northmen and the Wainriders", sixth paragraph
  31. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "Notes", note 9
  32. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "(i) The Northmen and the Wainriders", seventh paragraph
  33. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1944
  34. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "(i) The Northmen and the Wainriders", eleventh paragraph
  35. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "Notes", note 14
  36. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for king Eärnil II
  37. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for king Ciryaher
  38. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil", The House of Dol Amroth, entry for the 15th prince of Dol Amroth
  39. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 2758
  40. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", "The Stewards", entry for steward Beren
  41. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", entry for king Helm
  42. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for king Eldacar
  43. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", "The Stewards", entry for steward Ecthelion II and entry for steward Denethor II
  44. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", first and second paragraph
  45. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "X. Of Dwarves and Men", "The Atani and their Languages", penultimate paragraph and its preceeding paragraph
  46. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Men", sixth paragraph
  47. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Writing", "The Fëanorian Letters", Note, The names of the letters