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Haradrim

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Haradrim
People
John Howe - Southrons.jpg
"Southrons" by John Howe
General Information
Pronunciationha-rad-rim
Other namesHaradrim (S), Haradwaith (S), Swertings (H), Southrons (W), Men of Darkness (W), Swarthy Men (W), Southerns (W), Men of Harad (W), Men of the South (W)
OriginsAwakening of Men
LocationsHarad, including Umbar, Near Harad and Far Harad
AffiliationBlue Wizards, Númenóreans, Sauron, Black Númenóreans
RivalriesExiles of Númenor, Gondorians
LanguagesPresumably numerous Haradric languages, different from Common Speech; Adûnaic; Westron; and the Drúadan language (at least formerly)[note 1]
Physical Description
LifespanShorter than Númenóreans[note 2]
DistinctionsGift of Ilúvatar
Average heightTall
Hair colorDark
Skin colorBlack, brown, dark, swarthy
WeaponryOliphaunts;
Black Breath
GalleryImages of Haradrim
"West, North, and South the children of Men spread and wandered, and their joy was the joy of the morning before the dew is dry, when every leaf is green."
The Silmarillion, Of Men

Haradrim or the Southrons were the Men of Harad, descendants of the Men who woke in the far eastern land of Hildórien at the beginning of the First Age.[1] They are the proud, doughty and warlike people of the Harad, in the south of Middle-earth.[2] Ancient enemies of Gondor,[3] they allied with Sauron during the War of the Elves and Sauron and War of the Ring.[4][note 3] Eventually, many turned against Sauron, when Manwë sent the Wizards to the southern lands of Middle-earth.[5]

Contents

Origins

The ancestors of the Haradrim were the Men who awoke in Hildórien during the age of the Sun,[6] but stayed to the East of Middle-earth, not joining the migration of the Edain to the Uttermost West.[1] Then Morgoth, the original Dark Lord, came to corrupt them to his service whilst tricking them to abandon Ilúvatar.[7] A Shadow ever after lay over all of humanity, wherein portions of the ancestors of Harad later began migrating after coming into conflict with other men that fell under the Shadow.[8] Still some went West in search of the Light of Valinor and servants of Morgoth hunted them, but the majority of mankind refused alike the summons of the Valar and of Morgoth.[8]

The different peoples who moved to Harad, where the Sun is fierce because there are barely any clouds,[9] played no role in the tales of the First Age.[6][10] However, this sundering bereft them of the enlightenment and crafts that the Elves may have taught them,[11][12] which made them vulnerable to their two later woes: Sauron and the Dúnedain.[13] Historians of Gondor believed that the Drúedain came from lands south of Mordor, that they turned north into Ithilien before they reached the coasts of Harad and were the first Men to cross the Anduin, possibly near Cair Andros.[14]

History

Second Age

At first, for many centuries, the Haradrim were independent peoples, generally isolated from the rest of the world. However, in the Second Age they became increasingly caught between the ambitions of two great powers — namely Sauron and the Númenóreans — a circumstance which lasted thousands of years.[15][16] Sailing East, the Númenóreans explored the coasts of Middle-earth, including the coast lands of Harad.[16] The Númenóreans initially benefited the natives they contacted, by teaching them many things about agriculture and craftsmanship[17][18] and later made settlements on the southern coasts, including the construction of the great city of Umbar.[19]

After the reign of Tar-Ciryatan, the Númenóreans began to set themselves up as lords in Middle-earth as they demanded tribute of goods and wealth, causing the oppression of the Haradrim[20][21] as with many other peoples whose lands included a coastline.[22] Often Haradrim were killed or sold into slavery.[23] At first, Sauron didn't dare at first to challenge the Númenóreans as they expanded their control over Harad, until after the forging of the Rings of Power and the emergence of the Nazgûl.[17] Then, Sauron came as a ruler of almost all men east and south of the Ered Luin, as both their king and their god.[15] These men grew strong and built many towns and walls made from stone and they were fierce in war and armed with iron.[15] However, those of Harad who sought freedom and rejected Sauron would venture to the woods or mountains in fear of being pursued by him.[15][24]

In c. S.A. 1600, Manwë sent two Wizards to the southern and eastern lands of Middle-earth.[5] The Valar suspected there was a rebellion of good Haradrim but no leadership — ultimately they were very successful there in Harad. They arrived before Sauron's first war against the Elves and even on this war the Wizards had some influence.[25] They became known as Morinehtar and Rómestámo.[5] Because of their influence among the Haradrim, Sauron took a long time to attack Eregion, for his dominance and recruiting of forces was not entirely successful.[25]

In S.A. 3261, Ar-Pharazôn, the King of Númenor, landed at Umbar with a great fleet and the people on the coasts fled before them.[20] Ar-Pharazôn and his host marched through Harad to meet Sauron's forces, but they fled from the Númenóreans and Sauron allowed himself to be taken to Númenor where he corrupted the King and his followers.[26] Under Sauron's influence, the Númenóreans became even more ruthless to the locals of Harad, enslaving them and using them for human sacrifices.[17]

In the following centuries the Haradrim were influenced by Sauron and Black Númenóreans, those evil High Men who stayed in Harad and survived the Downfall of Númenor.[26] The Haradrim became enemies of Gondor, as the Kingdom's southern borders were close to their lands.[27] Shortly before the end of the Age, two Númenórean lords, Herumor and Fuinur, rose to great power amongst the Haradrim.[15]

However around the same time, the two Wizards, always operating in the East and the South, were able to hinder Sauron's operations, leading to his defeat in the War of the Last Alliance.[5] When Sauron's dominions of the Second Age fell with his demise in the War of the Last Alliance the Haradrim were freed from his direct control but not free of the effects of his long work on them, to which evil and darkness for the West had set in their hearts.[28][29] Additionally, some of the Haradrim, and the other servants of Sauron, turned from evil and became subject to the heirs of Elendil.[15]

Third Age

The great cape and land-locked firth of Umbar had been Númenórean land since days of old; but it was a stronghold of the King's Men, who were afterwards called the Black Númenoreans, corrupted by Sauron, and who hated above all the followers of Elendil.[30] After the fall of Sauron their race swiftly dwindled or became merged with the Men of Middle-earth, including those of Harad.[30] There was even intermarriage: Tarannon Falastur, King of Gondor, married a high-born Black Númenórean lady from an inland city in Harad; she is remembered as Queen Berúthiel.[31] However, most Black Númenórean intermarriage was with the Haradrim, and they became increasingly indistinguishable from the indigenous peoples.[32] The Haradrim did not trouble the Realms in Exile for many centuries.[33]

When Gondor took the haven of Umbar from the Black Númenóreans, in the year T.A. 1015 they followed the Black Númenóreans against Umbar to recapture it.[30] Their great power was not enough against the sea-power of Gondor.[30] The attempts lasted for 35 years until, in T.A. 1050, Ciryaher defeated the Haradrim force by sending troops by land.[30] They acknowledged the overlordship of Gondor; the kings of Harad did homage and their sons were given as hostages in the court of the King of Gondor.[32][34] The sons of Castamir and others of his kin, having fled from Gondor in 1447, set up a small kingdom in Umbar, and there made a fortified haven and later called themselves the Corsairs of Umbar.[35] The Corsairs of Umbar continued to make war upon Gondor, attacking its ships and coasts when they had opportunity.[35] Additionally, Castamir's progeny married women of the Harad - continuing the Numenorean Line of Elros, though of which was spent after three generations.[35][36][note 4]

Later, however, kings of Harad who were in league with Umbar rebelled against Gondor.[32] In T.A. 1634, Minardil was slain at Pelargir by the Corsairs of Umbar, who were led by the great-grandsons of Castamir: Angamaitë and Sangahyando.[30] Telumehtar who raided his coasts even as far as the Anfalas, gathered his forces and in 1810 took Umbar by storm.[32] In that war the last descendants of Castamir perished, and Umbar was again held for a while by the kings, however, the Battle of the Plains that befell Gondor resulted in Umbar being lost again, wherein it fell into the hands of the Men of the Harad.[32]

The Haradrim later were allied with the Wainriders, a confederation of Easterlings, and the Men of Khand.[32] During that time they conquered Umbar.[32] The simultaneous assaults from the north and the south brought the South-kingdom close to destruction.[32] The Haradrim crossed the river Poros into South Ithilien, but the Southern Army, destroyed them.[32] In the later years three great fleets were prepared in Umbar and Harad.[37] Around the Long Winter they assailed the coasts of Gondor, even Rohan.[37] The Haradrim occupied Harondor and there was a long fight along the Poros.[37] Stirred by emissaries of Sauron, they attempted once more to invade into Ithilien (T.A. 2885) but a combined force of Gondorians and Rohirrim defeated them at the Crossing of Poros.[38][39]

In the meantime, it was said that the two Wizards, Morinehtar and Rómestámo ensured that the forces of the East and the South did not outnumber the West, thus helping secure victory for the Free peoples in the subsequent War of the Ring.[5] At some time before the War, Gandalf also wandered in the South, for unspecified errands, and he became known as "Inkā-nūsh" among the suspicious Haradrim, who saw him as a spy from the North.[40]

At the time of that War, the Haradrim were in league with Sauron and fought alongside his Orc army. The Haradrim were among the forces led by the Witch-king that attacked Osgiliath on June 20, T.A. 3018, at the beginning of the War.[41] More Haradrim continued to come up the Harad Road to Mordor.[33] Regiments of Haradrim joined the host from Minas Morgul marching to the Pelennor Fields.[42] Sauron's forces besieged Minas Tirith, and the Mûmakil of Harad were used to bring forward war-towers and siege-engines to test the City's defences.[42] During the battle, the chief leader of the Haradrim army bore a standard of a Black Serpent on a red field; he was slain by King Théoden of Rohan.[43][41]

The Haradrim rallied around their Mûmakil which the horses of the Rohirrim feared to approach.[43] As the battle wore on, more Haradrim including Men from Far Harad were sent onto the field by Gothmog.[43] The Corsairs were prevented from reaching the battle, having been defeated by Aragorn and the Dead Men of Dunharrow.[44] Haradrim also fought at the Battle of the Morannon on March 25.[26] Sauron's army of Men, Orcs and Trolls outnumbered the Men of the West by more than ten to one, but the battle ended once the One Ring was destroyed in Mount Doom and Sauron was vanquished.[45] The Haradrim held out long and were among the last of Sauron's forces to be defeated.[43] Some of the Haradrim fled or surrendered, though others banded together in their hatred and fought on stalwartly.[46]

Fourth Age

After the War of the Ring the newly crowned king of the Reunited Kingdom, Elessar, made peace with the Men of Harad and completely subdued Umbar.[30][47] Embassies travelled from Harad to Aragorn's court, and although Aragorn's reign was largely one of peace, it was occasionally necessary for him and Éomer, King of Rohan, to travel to the southlands to maintain peace with Harad.[48]

Traits and culture

"Oliphaunt" by Alan Lee

The "fierce dark men of the South."[49] are of various ethnicities and cultures; some are organized into kingdoms.[33][30] The Haradrim were described by a messenger as "cruel and tall.",[50] "a grim folk, and not easily daunted by shade or blade."[51] Some of the Men in the south had weapons of iron.[52] At the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, the Haradrim bore scimitars that glittered like stars.[43] Those of Harad had tamed the massive Mûmakil beasts and used them in warfare and, like their masters, were decorated with scarlet and gold. They even strapped towers on their backs, used by Haradrim archers and spearmen.[33] The Haradrim had seemingly weaponised aspects of the Nazgûl's Black Breath, or at least tipped it upon arrows and darts during the last retreat before the city of Minas Tirith was besieged.[50][53]

The people of Far Harad are described as black-skinned, but there is also a group of them described as "black men like half-trolls with white eyes and red tongues" and "troll-men".[43] It is unclear whether these were just large Men who are being compared to Trolls or an implication of crossbreeding between the two races.[54] The Haradrim from Near Harad were those most familiar and most closely encountered during the War of the Ring:[55] when Faramir ambushed a company of Haradrim on the North Road, Frodo and Sam witnessed a Harad warrior crashing at their feet, a man with "brown skin", with black plaits of hair braided with gold,[55] a scarlet tunic, as do the other Haradrim, and a gold collar.[9] He was armed with a scimitar and garbed with a corslet of brazen scales. Their standards are scarlet, and their great beasts, the Mûmakil, have scarlet and gold trappings.[55] They carry round spiked shields, painted yellow and black.[33] One of the great chieftains of the Haradrim also bore a Black Serpent as his emblem, against a field of red.[56]

Languages

Very little is known about the language(s) of Harad though the word "Mûmak", the name of the great war-oliphaunts of Harad, is stated to come directly from a language of Harad.[57] To the Gondorians the voices of the Haradrim sounded harsh, like shouts of beasts.[50] Albeit having a meaning in Quenya ("fate"), the name umbar is said to be adapted from the indigenous languages of Harad and not from Elvish or Adûnaic script.[58][59][60]

Gandalf stated that his name in "the south" is "Incánus", which is apparently "alien", that is neither Westron, nor Elvish, nor explicable by the surviving tongues of Northern Men. A note in the Thain's Book states that it is a form adapted to Quenya of a word in the tongue of the Haradrim thought Inkā-nūsh (or possibly Inkā-nūs), meaning "North-spy".[40]

Etymology

Haradrim is a Sindarin name, consisting of the elements harad ("south") + rim ("host") thus meaning "South-people".[61] Additionally, the Elves named the land and its people Haradwaith, "South-folk", from the Sindarin harad, meaning "south", and gwaith, meaning "people".[57] The Hobbits called the area the Sunlands, and the people Swertings.[9]

Barangils is a Gondorian term for the people of Harad; ’swerting’ derives from swart (’swarthy’).[62] The Elvish name seems to contain baran ’dark, swart, dark-brown’ (BARÁN) and possibly the suffix -il also seen in ernil ’prince’.[63]

Other versions of the legendarium

Early variant names for this people were the Barangils, the Haradwaith, and Haradrians.[64][65] In early drafts of The Lord of the Rings, anglicized names for the Haradrim in the text, were Silharrows and Harwan, which according to Christopher Tolkien were derived from the name for the Aethiopians.[66] "Men of Sunharrowland" (or "of Harrowland") are other two anglicized names.[67] In early drafts of Lord of the Rings, Harns was a Sindarin equivalent for the term Haradrim.[68] It's based on harn ’southern’ (KHYAR-) and is an English plural.[69][70] Additionally, Haradwaith has the anglicized name (Sun)Harrowland.[66] For more explanation on those names, see below.

In the earliest narrative of the legendarium in The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien mentioned the movement of Men, after the War of Palisor, leading to the darkening of their skin.[71] After Nuin death at the bands of the Goblins through the treachery of Men, many kindreds of Men were driven to the southern forests.[71] Additionally, it was revealed that Manwë was unaware of where the beginning of Men should be, whether the north, south or east.[72] In The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, Eärendil and Voronwe's voyage on Vingilótë to southern Haradwaith where there is mention of Tree-men and Pygmies.[73][note 5]

Earlier account of the Two Wizards

In the published works, all the Wizards were originally sent in the year T.A. 1000 as emissaries to Middle-earth along with Gandalf, Saruman and Radagast.[38] The above article gives information based on a late essay by Tolkien concerning the two Wizards, published in The Peoples of Middle-earth.

However in some earlier time, when asked about the other two Wizards, Tolkien speculated that they went to the distant regions, including the lands of Harad, far out of Númenórean range. Whether together or independent of each other, the two may have fallen from their appointed task, wherein they may have founded 'magic' cults amongst the peoples of the East and South, which existed beyond the downfall of the Lord of the Rings.[74]

Inspiration

Christopher Tolkien linked the Haradrim with ancient Aethiopians.[67][66] In an interview from 1966, Tolkien likened Berúthiel to the giantess Skaði of Norse mythology, since they both shared a dislike for "seaside life".[75][76] Additionally, Tolkien scholar Tom Shippey stated in reference to the 'black men like half-trolls' passage from The Return of the King that Tolkien was attempting to write like a medieval chronicler in describing the Rohirrim's encounter with a Haradrim: "[...] and when medieval Europeans first encountered sub-Saharan Africans, they were genuinely confused about them, and rather frightened."[77] He noted that Tolkien had pointed out in his early scholarly works "the ancient English seemed to have a belief in fire-demons, who naturally enough had skin like soot – their word for them, ‘harwan’, is related to Latin ‘carbo’, ‘soot,’ or carbon."[78][77] Shippey concluded by remarking that, "An Anglo-Saxon meeting an African for the first time might then really wonder - for a moment, from a distance - whether this was a demon from his own mythology. This doesn't mean that Tolkien shared the mythology, or the mistake."[79]

The "Sigelwaran"

Much of Tolkien's influence for Harad and the Haradrim came about from his essay Sigelwara Land, in which he examined the etymology of Sigelwaran (and the more usual form Sigelhearwan) — the Old English word for Ethiopians.[80][81] The essay was originally published in two parts: part one appeared in Medium Ævum (Vol. 1, No. 3) in 1932, and part two appeared in Medium Ævum (Vol. 3, No. 2) in 1934.[81] The article investigated why there was a distinct and several times attested Old English name for the Ethiopians (namely Sigelwaran, Sigelhearwan)[80] as actual biblical names were usually adapted, not translated.[82]

Tolkien remarked that the word includes elements not current in Old English and argues from there on that it must be older and preserved at least a name, "if no more, from the vanished native mythology or its borderland of half-mythical geography."[83] As the initial element Sigel ’Sun’ comes into question, which is attested in Beowulf and has furthermore cognates in other languages, as e.g. the name of the s-rune.[84] Another candidate is sigel, sigle describing "a round jewel or golden ornament",[85] originating from Latin sigillum, which in its turn refers to "a small image or figure, the impress of a stamp or seal."[86] Tolkien then suggested that the two words had mutual influence on each other; and he remarks on the usage of gimm ’precious stone, jewel’ for the sun.[85] For the second element hearwa he discusses several primitive candidates all having to do with the colour ’black’, so that the name may mean something akin to ’those who were made black by the sun’.[87][88] As he concluded, "such guesswork is naturally inconclusive [...] giving insight into English and northern tradition and imagination."[89][90]

Portrayal in adaptations

Films

2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):

The Haradrim appear briefly in The Two Towers when Frodo and Sam witness a raid on one of their columns by Faramir's rangers. They are featured more prominently in The Return of the King, in which the battle between the Rohirrim and the Mûmakil is a major action sequence. While the book depicts the Southron army as primarily cavalry armed with scimitars, we see no horsemen in the movie: the Haradrim fight almost exclusively from platforms mounted on the backs of their monstrous Oliphaunts. They have also adorned the animals' tusks with spikes and shafts that crush and impale numerous enemy horsemen. The costumes of the Haradrim in the movie are Middle Eastern in style and dark brown or black in colour, while a companion book, Lord of the Rings: Creatures, stated that the Haradrim were based on 12th century Saracens.[91]

2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):

The Ringwraith of Harad, also known as the Dark Headsman was a Nazgûl who was revived by Sauron and summoned to Dol Guldur.[92] He was once a King of the Haradrim that was given a Ring of Power by Sauron the deceiver and was corrupted to serve him. The Witch-king and the other Ringwraiths were buried in a dungeon in the High Fells of Rhudaur after the fall of Angmar. Later, Gandalf, following Galadriel's advice, visits the High Fells and discovers that the Nazgûl's cells were empty, broken open from the inside. Through this investigation, he is convinced that the Necromancer in Dol Guldur is indeed Sauron. In the Attack on Dol Guldur, The Witch-King, along with the other Nazgûl, participates by fighting Saruman and Elrond, members of the White Council. In the end, he and the other Nine are driven back to Mordor by Galadriel and her phial, his master also eventually following suit.

Radio series

1981: The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series):

Dernhelm warns Théoden of the coming of the chieftain. He kills the chieftain, but is killed by the Witch-king almost immediately after.

Video games

2003: The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring:

The Haradrim appeared and are known as the 'Haradrim Slayers'.[93]

2006: The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II:

The Haradrim and the Corsairs of Umbar appear in much merchandise for the film trilogy, such as toys. The Corsairs are from the Mordor faction, and are equipped with knives and fire-bombs.[94]

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

The Nazgûl appear throughout the game, and three are Haradrim: 'The Grim Southron', 'The High Sorcerer of Harad', and 'The Forsaken Reaver'. The Corsairs were led by four brothers who falsely call themselves the Heirs of Castamir. These were Azruthor, Dolgimil, Azgarzôr, and the eldest Balakhôr the Scourge. The player negotiated with a Corsair named Jajax, who ended up siding with the player against the Heirs and their followers.

2014: Middle-earth: Shadow of War:

Suladân is an antagonist who, before his fall, was a noble Númenóreans King who ruled the nation of Harad during the Second Age. During his rule, he sought to go up against Sauron where he led an army of Númenórean soldiers to lay siege on the Dark Lord's fortress in Mordor. Before he sought to engage him, he was surprised that the Dark Lord surrendered and offered a Ring of Power to him. The temptation was too great, and Suladân eventually moved Sauron from the position of enemy to advisor. As Suladân's power grew, so did Sauron's influence over him. He eventually fell completely under the Dark Lord's power to become one of the nine Nazgûl. Additionally, Baranor is a playable character who is a captain in Gondor's guard, originally from Harad, before being adopted by the wealthy Gondorian family.[95]

Other

1982: Middle-earth Role Playing:

Iron Crown Enterprises produced a series of books for their tabletop roleplaying game Middle-earth Role Playing containing information about Harad and content allowing games to be set there. Additionally, Herumor is given an extended history, and Fuinur is revealed as his older brother. Key publications included the setting books Umbar: Haven of the Corsairs (1982),[96] Far Harad: The Scorched Land (1988),[97] Forest of Tears (1990),[98] as well as the adventure books Warlords of the Desert (1989),[99] Hazards of the Harad Wood (1989),[100] and Greater Harad (1990).[101]

1994: The Two Towers MUD:

The Haradrim are featured alongside the Uruk-hai, Easterlings, Númenóreans, and Variag.

2001: The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game:

The Haradrim and the Corsairs of Umbar appear in much merchandise for the film trilogy, such as toys and card sets within the TCG.

2001: The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game:

Suladân, the "Serpent Lord", is the name of the chieftain Haradrim leader who King Théoden kills, and its who players often refer to as the "Black Serpent" after his standard.[102][103] Some of the Haradrim are assassins called 'Hasharin', wherein there are characters such as "The Golden King" and "Dalamyr".[103] Additionally, Half Trolls are "Mahûd men" of Far Harad who were altered to the size and strength of the Olog-hai of Sauron.[104] Units include "Half Troll Warband" and "Half Troll of Far Harad".[105] Games Workshop had produced miniatures and rules relating to Harad, including for Mûmak, The Golden King of Abrakhân, Half Trolls, Haradrim Warriors and Corsairs of Umbar.[106][107][108][109][110]

2002: The Lord of the Rings Roleplaying Game:

The Haradrim are featured amongst the Men of Darkness.[111]

2011: The Lord of the Rings: The Card Game:

The Haradrim are featured amongst a variety of sets, including The Sands of Harad.[112]

Notes

  1. Due to the suggestion of Gondorian historians that the group originally came from Harad.
  2. Castamir of House of Anárion lived to the age of 188, and another great-grandson of Calmacil, Eldacar, lived to the age of 235. Eldcar's children and grandchildren, Ornendil, Aldamir and Hyarmendacil II lived for an average of 187 years. The same could theoretically be said for the children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren of Castamir in Harad, and in point of fact these ages correspond to the general ages of Númenóreans during the period of Ar-Adûnakhôr's reign in Númenór.
  3. In The Nature of Middle-earth, with reference to the Blue Wizards in 'Note on the Delay of Gil-galad and the Númenóreans', it is said that Sauron took a long time to attack Eregion, for his dominance and recruiting of forces was not entirely successful, and this was due to the actions of his powerful enemies in Rhûn and Harad that he hadn't paid much attention until then; ergo, Tolkien suggesting that certain denizens of both those lands played a role during the War of the Elves and Sauron.
  4. The bloodline of Elros is spread amongst the Haradrim in Harad via Castamir's children and grandchildren who later mate with the women of Harad, with the last known descendants of Elros within that region of Endor being Angamaitë and Sangahyando.
  5. The habited land in question featuring "Dark regions, Fire mountains, Tree-men, Pygmies, and Sarqindi or cannibal-ogres" is definitely southern Haradwaith rather than the Dark Lands, due to another note mentioning some southern Isles beyond that region, and these can only be the hills that became islands mentioning in The Chaining of Melko, which must have been a product of the tumults that lead to the formation of the Inner Seas, when the Belegaer and Eastern Sea flowed into the Sea of Ringil. And as we know, it was South of the Inner Seas that the South Lands were located. Ergo, Eärendil simply visited areas that would later be part of the Black Númenórean southern realms, beyond the realm of Umbar.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men", pp. 306.
  2. Mark Fisher, "Men of Harad" dated 17 December 2015, Encyclopedia of Arda (accessed 19 September 2021)
  3. Mark Fisher, "Southrons" dated 17 December 2015, Encyclopedia of Arda (accessed 2 October 2021)
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age", pp. 353
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XIII. Last Writings", pp. 384-85
  6. 6.0 6.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Men"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Four. Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth: Notes [on 'The Debate of Finrod and Andreth']", p. 346-349
  8. 8.0 8.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West"
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Black Gate is Closed"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 229, (dated 23 February 1961)
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson)
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Three. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: (II) The Second Phase: Of the Darkening of Valinor"
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See also

References