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Harad

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==History==
 
==History==
 
===Years of the Lamps===
 
===Years of the Lamps===
[[File:Ted Nasmith - The Lamp of the Valar.jpg|thumb|left|"Ormal, The Lamp of the Valar" by [[Ted Nasmith]]]]After the [[Valar]] entered the world [[Aulë]] at the prayer of [[Yavanna]] wrought [[Two Lamps|two mighty lamps]] for the lighting of the Middle-earth which he had built amid the encircling seas. Then [[Varda]] filled the lamps and [[Manwë]] hallowed them, and the Valar set them upon high pillars. One lamp they raised in the south of Middle-earth, and it was named [[Ormal]]; and the light of the Lamps of the Valar flowed out over the Earth.<ref>{{S|Days}}, pp. 39</ref>
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[[File:Ted Nasmith - The Lamp of the Valar.jpg|thumb|left|"Ormal, The Lamp of the Valar" by [[Ted Nasmith]]]]In the primordial days of [[Arda]], the south part of [[Middle-earth]] was illuminated by the southern of the [[Two Lamps|two mighty lamps]], named [[Ormal]], atop a mighty pillar.<ref>{{S|Days}}, pp. 39</ref> Both lamps were eventually destroyed by an assault by [[Melkor]]<ref name="Rend">{{S|Days}}, pp. 41</ref> and the destruction of Ormal created the southern [[Sea of Ringil]].<ref>{{SM|5b}}</ref><ref>{{SM|5e}}</ref>
 
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The lamps were eventually destroyed by an assault by [[Melkor]].<ref name="Rend">{{S|Days}}, pp. 41</ref> Their fall was cataclysmic as the symmetry of [[Arda]] was destroyed as the weight of the lamps broke continents and their fire burned the land, such that the original design of the Valar, including [[Almaren]], was undone forever.<ref>{{SM|A5}}</ref> The destruction of Ormal created the [[Sea of Ringil]], south of the [[Sea of Helcar]].<ref>{{SM|5b}}</ref><ref>{{SM|5e}}</ref>
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===First Age===
 
===First Age===
Historians of [[Gondor]] believed that the [[Drúedain]] came from lands south of [[Mordor]], that they turned north into [[Ithilien]] before they reached the coasts of Harad and were the first Men to cross the [[Anduin]], possibly near [[Cair Andros]].<ref>{{UT|12b}}, pp. 339-340.</ref>
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Some of the first [[Men]] leaving the [[East]], eventually settled Harad and became the ancestors of the [[Haradrim]].
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Historians of [[Gondor]] believed that the [[Drúedain]] came from lands south of [[Mordor]], that they turned north into [[Ithilien]] before they reached the coasts of Harad and were the first Men to cross the [[Anduin]].<ref>{{UT|12b}}, pp. 339-340.</ref>
  
 
===Second Age===
 
===Second Age===

Revision as of 08:12, 10 October 2021

Harad
Region
Christopher Tolkien - Map of Harad.jpg
Map of Harad drawn by Christopher Tolkien
General Information
Pronunciationha-rad (S)
Other namesHaradwaith (S), Sunlands (H), Sutherland (W)
LocationSouthern lands of Middle-earth, south of Harondor and Mordor
TypeRegion
DescriptionA vast hot area, filled with deserts and dark forests
RegionsNear Harad and Far Harad
Major townsUmbar
People and History
InhabitantsHaradrim
CreatedBetween the Years of the Lamps and the Years of the Trees
EventsDestruction of Ormal
Ar-Pharazôn captures Sauron
Corsair Wars
Surprise Attack on Umbar
GalleryImages of Harad

Harad was the name of a great region south of Gondor and Mordor.

Contents

History

Years of the Lamps

"Ormal, The Lamp of the Valar" by Ted Nasmith
In the primordial days of Arda, the south part of Middle-earth was illuminated by the southern of the two mighty lamps, named Ormal, atop a mighty pillar.[1] Both lamps were eventually destroyed by an assault by Melkor[2] and the destruction of Ormal created the southern Sea of Ringil.[3][4]

First Age

Some of the first Men leaving the East, eventually settled Harad and became the ancestors of the Haradrim.

Historians of Gondor believed that the Drúedain came from lands south of Mordor, that they turned north into Ithilien before they reached the coasts of Harad and were the first Men to cross the Anduin.[5]

Second Age

When the Men of Númenor began sailing east they explored the coasts of Middle-earth, including the coast lands of Harad. The Númenóreans initially benefited the people in the lands they explored by teaching them many things about agriculture and craftsmanship.[6][7]. The Númenóreans later made settlements on the southern coasts, including the Havens of Umbar.

In the 9th century of the Second Age, the great mariner Aldarion sailed to the haven of Vinyalondë and then sailed along the coasts southwards, far beyond any place yet reached by the Númenóreans. On his return northwards he barely escaped being shipwrecked in the Harad.[8]

After the reign of Tar-Ciryatan, the Númenóreans began to set themselves up as lords in Middle-earth as they demanded tribute of goods and wealth, causing the oppression of the Haradrim. The Númenóreans expanded their control over Harad and Sauron did not at first dare to challenge them. But after the forging of the Rings of Power and the emergence of the Nazgûl, Sauron began to attack the Númenórean settlements on the coast.[6]

After the forging of the Rings of Power almost all men east and south of the Ered Luin were under Sauron's rule. Sauron was both their king and their god. These men grew strong and built many towns and walls made from stone and they were fierce in war and armed with iron.[9]

Umbar was fortified in 2280.[10]

Ar-Pharazôn, the king of Númenor, landed at Umbar in 3261[10] with a great fleet and the people on the coasts fled before them. Ar-Pharazôn and his host marched through Harad to meet Sauron's forces, but they fled from the Númenóreans and Sauron allowed himself to be taken to Númenor where he corrupted the King and his followers. Under Sauron's influence, the Númenóreans became even more ruthless to the locals of Harad, enslaving them and using them for sacrifices.[6]

During the stay of Sauron in Númenor many of the Númenóreans who sailed east from Númenor and made fortresses and dwellings upon the coasts of the southlands in Middle-earth were already bent to his will.[9]

The Númenóreans who lived in Harad survived the drowning of Númenor in 3319. They were later called Black Númenóreans in Gondor[11][12], because they still served Sauron in Middle-earth after the drowning of Númenor. They fought with Sauron during the War of the Last Alliance against the Alliance of Elves and Men. Two of those númenórean lords, Herumor and Fuinur rose to power among the Haradrim.[9]

Third Age and later history

The settlements of the Númenóreans beyond Umbar had been absorbed or had become hostile to Gondor and parts of Sauron's dominions because they were made by men that were already corrupted by Sauron in Númenor.[13]

King Eärnil I of Gondor laid siege by sea and land to Umbar and in 933[14]conquered Umbar, which became a great fortress of Gondor. Three years later in 933[14] Eärnil I was lost with many ships and men in a storm near Umbar.[15]

The Men of the Harad, led by the lords that had been driven from Umbar, came with great power against Umbar and laid siege to it. King Ciryandil fell in the siege of Umbar in 1015.[16][14].

Umbar was under a siege for many years, but could not be taken because of the sea-power of Gondor. King Ciryaher of Gondor came from the north by sea and by land and crossed the river Harnen. His armies defeated the Men of the Harad and the kings of Harad were forced to acknowledge the overlordship of Gondor in 1050.[17][14]

After the Kin-strife Castamir's sons with others of their kin and with many people of the fleets sailed away from Pelargir and seized Umbar in 1448[14]. They made a refuge for all enemies of King Eldacar and a Lordship independent of Gondor at Umbar. Umbar remained at war with Gondor for many lives of men and was a thread to the coastlands of Gondor and to all traffic on the sea. After Gondor lost Umbar to the rebels, Gondor's control over the Men of the Harad was loosened.[17]

King Telumehtar of Gondor conquered Umbar in 1810. During that war the last descendants of Castamir perished and Umbar was again held for a while by the kings of Gondor.[17][14]

After the War of the Ring the newly crowned king of the Reunited Kingdom, Elessar, made peace with the Men of Harad[18] and completely subdued Umbar.[17][19]

Geography

Harad was located south of Mordor, with the Mountains of Shadow forming part of the northern border of Harad. The River Harnen flowed westward from the Mountains of Shadow to the Bay of Belfalas and was Harad's border with South Gondor - a deserted region contested between Gondor and Harad. The Harad Road ran from Harad northward through South Gondor and on to Ithilien.

To the north-east of Harad was Khand, a land that also had ties with Sauron. It is not known how far eastward or southward Harad stretched. On the west, Harad was bounded by the Bay of Belfalas and the Sea.

The northernmost part of Harad was called Near Harad and the southern part was Far Harad. On the coast there was a natural harbour with a narrow cape curving around it. The coastal region around the harbour was known as Umbar, and the harbour was called the Havens of Umbar. The seafaring raiders known as the Corsairs lived there. At the eastern end of the harbour was the City of the Corsairs.[20]

There were fortresses and dwellings upon the coasts in the south.[9] There were also fields[19] and "dark forests" with apes in the south.[21] In Harad lived also camels and the gigantic Oliphaunts,[22][23] which were used by the Haradrim as moving war towers.

Harad was called the "Sunlands" by the Hobbits of the Shire,[23] suggesting the climate was warmer and sunnier. Even the constellations in Harad's night sky down in the southern hemisphere[24] were different from those in northern Middle-earth (Aragorn had travelled far into Harad "where the stars are strange"[25].

Inhabitants

Haradrim Camp by Jan Pospíšil
Main article: Haradrim

The Men of Harad were also known as the Haradrim to the peoples of north-western Middle-earth. There were many tribes of the Haradrim often mutually hostile. The men of Near Harad were brown-skinned, with black hair and dark eyes,[23] while the men of Far Harad were described as black-skinned with white eyes and red tongues like "half-trolls".[26]

Etymology

Harad means "South" in Sindarin.[27] The word is derived from root KHYAR, and is cognate to Quenya hyarmen ("south").[28] It is also called Haradwaith which includes gwaith ("people").

The Men of Harad were called Haradrim ("Southern-host").[25]

Other versions of the legendarium

An early name of Harad was (Sun)Harrowland, which is derived from the Old English name of the Aethiopans, Sigerhearwan, and therefore meaning "Aethiopia" (See also: Sigelwara Land).[29]

In early drafts of The Return of the King, the portion of Harad directly south of Mordor was named the Desert of Lostladen, Lothlann, or Lothland.[30]

Inspiration

Given the descriptions of the inhabitants of Middle-earth's southern lands,[23] the early etymologies of their name,[29] and the overall shape of the southern lands as shown in the Ambarkanta maps,[31] it is likely that Harad may have been based on the lands of northern and northeastern Africa and perhaps the Middle East in our world.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Beginning of Days", pp. 39
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Beginning of Days", pp. 41
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta: Of the Fashion of the World"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta: Commentary on the Ambarkanta"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain", "Further notes on the Drúedain", pp. 339-340.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Númenor", entry for the time after Minastir
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife"
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  10. 10.0 10.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eärnil I footnote 1
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Black Gate Opens"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eärnil I
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Ciryandil
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Ciryaher
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Steward and the King"
  19. 19.0 19.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", "The Kings of the Mark", Third Line, entry for King Éomer
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Helm's Deep"
  22. A Map of Middle-earth
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Black Gate is Closed"
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari", Note #10}}
  25. 25.0 25.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
  27. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Pronunciation of Words and Names", "Consonants"
  28. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, Part Three: "The Etymologies", KHYAR
  29. 29.0 29.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XXV. The Story Foreseen from Fangorn", Note 4
  30. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Ring, "Part Three: Minas Tirith", "XIV. The Second Map", pp. 413, 426 (note 35), 435, 439 (note 4)
  31. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta", p. 250-251