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Dúnedain

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| image=
 
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| caption=
 
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| pronun=
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| pronun=[[Sindarin|S]], {{IPA|[ˈduːnedaɪn]}}
| othernames=
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| othernames=Great People of the West, Men of the Ancient Houses, Men of the West, Men of Westernesse
| origin=Descendants of the [[Númenóreans]]
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| origin=Descendants of the [[Númenoreans]] in [[Middle-earth]]
 
| location=[[Eriador]], [[Arnor]], [[Gondor]]
 
| location=[[Eriador]], [[Arnor]], [[Gondor]]
| affiliation=
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| affiliation=[[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]], [[Host of the West (Arnor)|Host of the West]], [[Grey Company]]
 
| rivalry=[[Sauron]]
 
| rivalry=[[Sauron]]
| language=[[Quenya]], [[Westron]], [[Sindarin]], [[Gondor Sindarin]]  
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| language=[[Westron]], [[Sindarin]], [[Quenya]]  
| members=[[Amandil]], [[Tar-Palantir]], [[Argeleb I]], [[Aragorn II]]
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| members=[[Argeleb I]], [[Aragorn II]], [[Denethor]], [[Boromir]], [[Faramir]], [[Imrahil]], [[Morwen Steelsheen]]
| lifespan=Three times the life of a regular man but later diminished (not so much in [[Arnor]] however)<ref>{{App|Eriador}}</ref>
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| lifespan=''[[#Waning of the Dúnedain|See below]]''
| distinctions=Superior to the other men of Middle-earth in nobility of spirit and body
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| distinctions=Superior to the other Men of [[Middle-earth]] in nobility of spirit and body
| height=Taller than other [[Men]]
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| height=About 6'4"<ref name=height>{{UT|Linear}}</ref>
 
| hair=Dark
 
| hair=Dark
| skin=
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| skin=Pale
 
| clothing=
 
| clothing=
 
| weapons=
 
| weapons=
 
}}
 
}}
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{{quote|Where now are the Dúnedain, Elessar, Elessar?<br />Why do thy kinsfolk wander afar?|[[Galadriel's messages]]}}
  
The '''Dúnedain''' ([[Sindarin|S]]: "west-men", pron. {{IPA|[ˈduːnedaɪn]}}), singular '''Dúnadan''' (pron. {{IPA|[ˈduːnadan]}}), were the [[Men]] of [[Númenor]] and their descendants who peopled [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Second Age|Second]] and [[Third Age|Third Ages]].  
+
The '''Dúnedain''' ([[Sindarin|S]]: "West-men"), singular '''Dúnadan''', were the [[Men of Númenor]] and (especially) their descendants who peopled [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Second Age|Second]] and [[Third Age|Third Ages]].  
  
Some [[Númenóreans]] had settled around the haven of [[Pelargir]], but others, who belonged to the [[Faithful]], fled Númenor just before its [[Downfall of Númenor|destruction]], led by [[Elendil]] and his sons. However there were also other colonies in Middle-earth founded by hostile survivors of the Downfall, known as the [[Black Númenóreans]].
+
Although they were from the beginning far fewer in number than the [[Middle Men|lesser men]], the Dúnedain were lords of long life, great power, and wisdom; far superior to the [[Middle Men|Men of Middle-earth]] among whom they dwelt and whom they ruled.<ref name=languages/>
  
The Dúnedain formed the [[Realms in Exile]] of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]], around the [[Middle Men]] who were ruled by Númenórean lords. Originally ruled by the [[High King of the Dúnedain]], they were divided as the [[Dúnedain of Arnor]] and the [[Dúnedain of the South|Dúnedain of Gondor]]. Their lords and rulers communicated and surveyed their realms with the seven [[Palantíri]] they brought from Númenor, distributed around their lands.
+
==History==
 +
===Early History===
 +
The Dúnedain descend from the [[Edain]] of the [[First Age]], having granted and settled the island of [[Númenor]] in the [[Second Age]]. Many [[Men of Númenor]] settled in [[Middle-earth]], such as in [[Belfalas]], [[Umbar]] and [[Pelargir]]. The ancestors of the [[Princes of Dol Amroth]], were the most prominent of these.<ref name="Cirion">{{UT|Cirion}}</ref>
  
After the fall of Arnor and then [[Arthedain]], some of the northern Dúnedain became the [[Rangers of the North]]. The surviving Dúnedainic population of Arnor retreated to the [[Angle (Eriador)|Angle]] south of [[Rivendell]]. In the meantime the southern Dúnedain, the Men of Gondor, intermarried more and more with so-called [[Middle Men]], except in some regions (such as [[Dol Amroth]]).
+
After the [[Downfall of Númenor]], [[Elendil]] and his sons led the [[Exiles of Númenor|Exiles]] to Middle-earth. Many who where in whole or part of [[Númenorean]] blood welcomed them and proceeded to found the [[Realms in Exile]], [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]].<ref name=rings>{{s|Rings}}</ref><ref name=languages>{{App|Men}}</ref>
  
In the [[Fourth Age]], the Dúnedain of Gondor and Arnor were [[Reunited Kingdom|reunited]] under king [[Aragorn|Aragorn II Elessar]] (who was also called ''the Dúnadan'').
+
Originally ruled by their [[High King (Dúnedain)|High King]], they were divided as the [[Dúnedain of Arnor]] and the [[Dúnedain of Gondor]], following the death of [[Isildur]], son of [[Elendil]], in {{TA|2}}.<ref name=rings/><ref name="AppB">{{App|B2}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Division===
 +
====In Arnor====
 +
:See also: ''[[Dúnedain of Arnor]]''.
 +
[[Valandil (King of Arnor)|Valandil]], [[Isildur]]'s youngest son, took up his rule in [[Annúminas]], but his people were diminished, and there were too few [[Númenoreans]] and native [[Men of Eriador]] to people the land or maintain the places [[Elendil]] built; many had died in the [[War of the Last Alliance]] and the [[Disaster of the Gladden Fields]].<ref name=rings/>
 +
 
 +
After the reign of [[Eärendur]], the seventh king that followed [[Valandil]], the [[Dúnedain of the North]] became divided into petty realms and lordships, and the witch-realm of [[Angmar]] destroyed them one by one.<ref name=rings/><ref name=eriador>{{App|Eriador}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
The remnants of the [[Northern Dúnedain]] were also heavily affected by the [[Great Plague]]; the joint garrison (of the North and South Kingdoms) at [[Tharbad]] ceased to exist,<ref>{{UT|6d}}</ref> and the last of the Dúnedain of [[Cardolan]] died on the [[Barrow-downs]].<ref name=eriador/>
 +
 
 +
After the [[Angmar War]], the [[Dúnedain of the North]] were reduced to [[Ranger of the North|Rangers]] wandering secretly in the wild, and their heritage was forgotten, save in [[Imladris]], where the [[Heir of Isildur|Heirs of Isildur]] were harboured and their line, from father to son, remained unbroken.<ref name=rings/><ref name=eriador/>
 +
 
 +
====In Gondor====
 +
:See also: ''[[Dúnedain of Gondor]]''.
 +
In the south, the realm of [[Gondor]] endured and the splendour and might of the [[Dúnedain of the South]] grew, until it resembled the wealth and majesty of [[Númenor]] during the reign of [[Hyarmendacil I]].<ref name=rings/><ref name=gondor>{{App|Gondor}}</ref><ref name="AppB"/>
 +
 
 +
However, in the later [[Third Age]], the [[Dúnedain of Gondor]] waned for their blood became much mingled with that of other men, especially the [[Northmen of Rhovanion]]. King [[Eldacar (King of Gondor)|Eldacar]], who himself had [[Northmen|Northmannish]] blood, showed favour to the [[Northmen]] who supported him. This led to the [[Kin-strife]], when many of the [[Dúnedain of Gondor]] were slain. After his return from exile, many noble houses, including the royal [[House of Anárion]], became more mingled with the blood of "lesser" Men.<ref name=gondor/>
 +
 
 +
After the reign of King [[Eärnur]], royal descendants among the [[Dúnedain of Gondor]] had become few and no claimant for the throne could be found of pure [[Númenórean]] blood, or whose claim all would accept, and people were afraid of a new [[Kin-strife]] that would devastate the kingdom. Thus, by default, [[Mardil]] began the line of [[Ruling Stewards of Gondor]].<ref name=rings/><ref name=gondor/>
 +
 
 +
After the [[Stewards]] picked up the southern rule, the remnant of the [[Dúnedain of Gondor]] still defended the passage of the [[Anduin]] against the terrors of [[Minas Morgul]] and against all the enemies of the West.<ref name=rings/>
 +
 
 +
By the time of the [[War of the Ring]], the [[Dúnedain of Gondor]] lived in [[Minas Tirith]] and the adjacent townlands, as well as the tributary fiefs and royal lands of [[Anórien]], [[Ithilien]], and [[Belfalas]].<ref name=languages/><ref name="Language">{{PM|Languages}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Reunification===
 +
Upon the reunification of the [[Kingdoms of the Dúnedain]] after the [[War of the Ring]], the Dúnedain were [[Reunited Kingdom|reunited]] under [[Aragorn II Elessar]], [[Isildur's Heir]], and their the might and dignity was lifted up and their glory renewed.<ref name=rings/>
 +
 
 +
==Characteristics==
 +
===Appearance===
 +
They were tall, pale-skinned, with dark hair, shining grey eyes, and proud faces.<ref name="Herbs">{{TT|Herbs}}</ref><ref name="Minas Tirith">{{RK|V1}}</ref><ref name="Sign">{{FR|Sign}}</ref> Although the stature of those with [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]] descent decreased from what it once was (more than 2 [[ranga]]), the Dúnedain were still about 2 [[ranga]] or 6'4" on average.<ref name=height>{{UT|Linear}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Waning of the Dúnedain===
 +
The [[Third Age]] marked the beginning of the waning of the Dúnedain, in which their gifts of wisdom, nobility, and long life were slowly withdrawn due to the [[Downfall of Númenor]] and their mingling with [[Middle Men|lesser men]].<ref name=gondor/>
 +
 
 +
In the beginning of their history, the Dúnedain were blessed with a lifespan thrice the life of [[Middle Men|lesser men]], yet this ever-diminished over the course of the [[Third Age]].<ref name=eriador/><ref name=languages/>
 +
 
 +
In [[Arnor]], the strife and dissensions between the kingdoms of [[Arthedain]], [[Cardolan]], and [[Rhudaur]] hastened the waning of the Dúnedain.<ref name=eriador/> "More swift was the waning in the [[Arnor|North-kingdom]], for [[Eriador]] became colder and there, the Dúnedain became ever less".<ref>{{PM|Third}}, p. 227</ref> The Dúnedain of Arnor, unlike their [[Gondorians|kin to the South]], were of unmingled [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]] blood.<ref name=blood>{{VT|42a}}, pp. 11-3</ref> Although, their lifespans ever continued to shorten, the [[Dúnedain of Arnor]], especially their [[Chieftain of the Dúnedain|Chieftains]], maintained significant longevity living to twice the age of [[Middle Men|lesser men]].<ref name=eriador/><ref>{{PM|Second}}</ref> The [[Heir of Isildur|Heirs of Isildur]] even lived up to 160 years or more.<ref name=Tale>{{PM|Aii}}, p. 263</ref>
 +
 
 +
After [[Gondor]]'s numbers were replenished by lesser [[Northmen]] after the [[Kin-Strife]], the mingling did not at first hasten the waning of the Dúnedain, as had been feared, but it still proceeded little by little as it had before.<ref name=gondor/> However, after the fall of the [[Kings of Gondor|Kings]], the waning was much swifter in [[Gondor]] than in [[Arnor]].<ref name=eriador/> In fact, [[Hador (Steward of Gondor)|Hador]] the seventh [[Ruling Steward]] of [[Gondor]] was the last [[Gondorian]] to live 150 years and after his time the life-span of those with [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]] blood waned more rapidly.<ref name="Elendil">{{PM|Elendil}}</ref> By the time of the [[War of the Ring]], few among the [[Gondorians]] passed 100 years with vigour, except in the more pure and noble houses.<ref>{{RK|Houses}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
Upon the reunification of the [[Kingdoms of the Dúnedain]], the might and dignity of the Dúnedain was lifted up and their glory was renewed.<ref name=rings/> Greatest among them was their [[High King (Dúnedain)|High King]] [[Aragorn II Elessar]] who lived up to 210 years (the longest since King [[Arvegil]]),<ref name=eriador/> and he received in some measure their former gifts. He wedded [[Arwen Undomiel]], daughter of [[Elrond]], brother of [[Elros]] first [[King of Númenor|King of Númenór]], and so restored the majesty and high lineage of the royal [[House of Telcontar]], but their life-span was not restored and continued to wane until it became as that of other men.<ref name="Elendil"/>
 +
 
 +
==Language==
 +
After the [[Downfall of Númenor|Downfall]], [[Sindarin]] was the regular spoken tongue of the [[Exiles of Númenor]].<ref>{{UT|7}}, note 16</ref> When they arrived on the coasts of [[Middle-earth]], few among the colonists on the coasts remembered [[Sindarin]] since the neglected [[Adûnaic]] was used as a ''lingua franca'' among the [[Men]] of [[Middle-earth]], which developed into the [[Westron]] tongue.<ref name=Atani>{{PM|Atani}}</ref><ref name=languages/> They used therefore the [[Common Speech]] intheir dealing with other folk and in the government of their wide realms; but they enlarged the language and enriched it with many words drawn from the Elven-tongues. In the days of the Númenorean kings, [[Westron]] became used more and more by the Dúnedain themselves.<ref name=languages/>
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 +
Among the Dúnedain, "the kings and high lords, and indeed all those of [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]] blood in any degree," for long used [[Númenórean Sindarin|Sindarin]].<ref>{{PM|Languages}}, p. 34</ref> Many of the [[Men of Gondor]] could also speak the [[Elvish]] tongues, a notable distinction and characteristic among the Dúnedain there.<ref name=languages/> [[Sindarin]] had long ceased to be a "first language" in [[Gondor]], but was learned in early youth (by the Dúnedain) from loremasters, and used by them as a mark of rank and high-blood. For example, the [[Stewards of Gondor]] belonged to a [[House of Húrin|noble family of Dúnedain]] of the ancient [[Faithful]] who used (beside the [[Common Speech]]) the [[Númenórean Sindarin]] tongue after the fashion of [[Gondor]]. It had changed very little since the [[Downfall of Númenor]] and though the [[Men of Gondor]] altered some of the sounds, they could still understand the [[Elves]] and be understood by them.<ref name="Elendil"/> [[Westron]] became used more and more by the [[Dúnedain of Gondor]] themselves, so that at the time of the [[War of the Ring]], [[Sindarin]] was known to only a small part of the peoples of [[Gondor]] (and spoken daily by fewer); they dwelt mostly in [[Minas Tirith]] and the adjacent townlands, and in the land of the tributary princes of [[Dol Amroth]].<ref name=languages/>
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 +
[[Quenya]] was used by the Dúnedain, a tradition which has continued from the loremasters of [[Númenor]], to be used for places of fame and reverence in addition to the names of royalty and men of great renown.<ref name="quenya">{{L|347}}</ref><ref name=languages/> All the royal names of the [[Kings of Gondor]] as well as all the [[Stewards]] until [[Mardil Voronwë]] were [[Quenya]] names.<ref name=languages/><ref>{{App|South}}</ref> All the royal names of the [[Kings of Arnor]] were [[Quenya]] names. The [[Kings of Arthedain]] and later the [[Chieftain of the Dúnedain|Chieftains of the Dúnedain]], however, took [[Sindarin]] names.<ref name=North>{{App|North}}</ref> At the end of the [[Third Age]], there were more Men (being of Dúnedain descent) that knew [[Quenya]] or spoke [[Sindarin]] than there were [[Elves]] (those of [[Lindon]], [[Rivendell]], and [[Lórien]]) who did either.<ref name="quenya"/>
  
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
 
{{Pronounce|Dunedain.mp3|Ardamir}}
 
{{Pronounce|Dunedain.mp3|Ardamir}}
{{quote|I thought you knew enough [[Elvish]] at least to know ''[[dûn|dún]]-[[adan]]'': Man of the West, Númenórean.|[[Bilbo Baggins]]<ref>{{FR|Meetings}}</ref>}}
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{{quote|I thought you knew enough [[Elvish]] at least to know ''[[dûn|dún]]-[[adan]]'': Man of the West, Númenórean.|[[Bilbo Baggins]] in ''[[The Fellowship of the Ring]]'', "[[Many Meetings]]"}}
  
 
They are also called the ''Men of the West'' and the ''Men of Westernesse'' (direct translations of the [[Sindarin]] term) and comes from ''[[dûn]]'' and ''[[adan]]''.
 
They are also called the ''Men of the West'' and the ''Men of Westernesse'' (direct translations of the [[Sindarin]] term) and comes from ''[[dûn]]'' and ''[[adan]]''.
Line 39: Line 90:
  
 
The [[Westron]] name for ''Dúnadan'' was simply '''[[Adûn]]''', "westerner", but this name was seldom used.
 
The [[Westron]] name for ''Dúnadan'' was simply '''[[Adûn]]''', "westerner", but this name was seldom used.
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''[[The Silmarillion]]'' is explicit in noting that "Númenoreans" and "Dúnedain" are synonymous terms. Nevertheless, it seems more usual to call those born in [[Númenor]] "'''Númenoreans'''" and their descendants living in [[Middle-earth]] post-[[Akallabêth]] "'''Dúnedain'''".
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==See also==
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*[[Black Númenóreans]]
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== External links ==
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* [http://www.zarkanya.net/Tolkien/Decline%20of%20the%20Numenoreans_original.htm Decline of the Lifespan of the Númenóreans] and [http://www.zarkanya.net/Tolkien/Stewards_and_Dol_Amroth.htm The Lifespans of the Ruling Stewards of Gondor and the Lords of Dol Amroth], by Alcuin
 +
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Dunedain}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Dunedain}}
 
[[Category:Dúnedain| ]]
 
[[Category:Dúnedain| ]]
 
[[Category:Pronounced articles]]
 
[[Category:Pronounced articles]]
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[[Category:Sindarin demonyms]]
 
[[de:Dúnedain]]
 
[[de:Dúnedain]]
 
[[fr:encyclo:peuples:hommes:dunedain]]
 
[[fr:encyclo:peuples:hommes:dunedain]]
 
[[fi:Dúnedain]]
 
[[fi:Dúnedain]]

Latest revision as of 12:38, 9 April 2021

Dúnedain
People
General Information
PronunciationS, [ˈduːnedaɪn]
Other namesGreat People of the West, Men of the Ancient Houses, Men of the West, Men of Westernesse
OriginsDescendants of the Númenoreans in Middle-earth
LocationsEriador, Arnor, Gondor
AffiliationLast Alliance of Elves and Men, Host of the West, Grey Company
RivalriesSauron
LanguagesWestron, Sindarin, Quenya
MembersArgeleb I, Aragorn II, Denethor, Boromir, Faramir, Imrahil, Morwen Steelsheen
Physical Description
LifespanSee below
DistinctionsSuperior to the other Men of Middle-earth in nobility of spirit and body
Average heightAbout 6'4"[1]
Hair colorDark
Skin colorPale
GalleryImages of Dúnedain
"Where now are the Dúnedain, Elessar, Elessar?
Why do thy kinsfolk wander afar?
"
Galadriel's messages

The Dúnedain (S: "West-men"), singular Dúnadan, were the Men of Númenor and (especially) their descendants who peopled Middle-earth in the Second and Third Ages.

Although they were from the beginning far fewer in number than the lesser men, the Dúnedain were lords of long life, great power, and wisdom; far superior to the Men of Middle-earth among whom they dwelt and whom they ruled.[2]

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] Early History

The Dúnedain descend from the Edain of the First Age, having granted and settled the island of Númenor in the Second Age. Many Men of Númenor settled in Middle-earth, such as in Belfalas, Umbar and Pelargir. The ancestors of the Princes of Dol Amroth, were the most prominent of these.[3]

After the Downfall of Númenor, Elendil and his sons led the Exiles to Middle-earth. Many who where in whole or part of Númenorean blood welcomed them and proceeded to found the Realms in Exile, Arnor and Gondor.[4][2]

Originally ruled by their High King, they were divided as the Dúnedain of Arnor and the Dúnedain of Gondor, following the death of Isildur, son of Elendil, in T.A. 2.[4][5]

[edit] Division

[edit] In Arnor

See also: Dúnedain of Arnor.

Valandil, Isildur's youngest son, took up his rule in Annúminas, but his people were diminished, and there were too few Númenoreans and native Men of Eriador to people the land or maintain the places Elendil built; many had died in the War of the Last Alliance and the Disaster of the Gladden Fields.[4]

After the reign of Eärendur, the seventh king that followed Valandil, the Dúnedain of the North became divided into petty realms and lordships, and the witch-realm of Angmar destroyed them one by one.[4][6]

The remnants of the Northern Dúnedain were also heavily affected by the Great Plague; the joint garrison (of the North and South Kingdoms) at Tharbad ceased to exist,[7] and the last of the Dúnedain of Cardolan died on the Barrow-downs.[6]

After the Angmar War, the Dúnedain of the North were reduced to Rangers wandering secretly in the wild, and their heritage was forgotten, save in Imladris, where the Heirs of Isildur were harboured and their line, from father to son, remained unbroken.[4][6]

[edit] In Gondor

See also: Dúnedain of Gondor.

In the south, the realm of Gondor endured and the splendour and might of the Dúnedain of the South grew, until it resembled the wealth and majesty of Númenor during the reign of Hyarmendacil I.[4][8][5]

However, in the later Third Age, the Dúnedain of Gondor waned for their blood became much mingled with that of other men, especially the Northmen of Rhovanion. King Eldacar, who himself had Northmannish blood, showed favour to the Northmen who supported him. This led to the Kin-strife, when many of the Dúnedain of Gondor were slain. After his return from exile, many noble houses, including the royal House of Anárion, became more mingled with the blood of "lesser" Men.[8]

After the reign of King Eärnur, royal descendants among the Dúnedain of Gondor had become few and no claimant for the throne could be found of pure Númenórean blood, or whose claim all would accept, and people were afraid of a new Kin-strife that would devastate the kingdom. Thus, by default, Mardil began the line of Ruling Stewards of Gondor.[4][8]

After the Stewards picked up the southern rule, the remnant of the Dúnedain of Gondor still defended the passage of the Anduin against the terrors of Minas Morgul and against all the enemies of the West.[4]

By the time of the War of the Ring, the Dúnedain of Gondor lived in Minas Tirith and the adjacent townlands, as well as the tributary fiefs and royal lands of Anórien, Ithilien, and Belfalas.[2][9]

[edit] Reunification

Upon the reunification of the Kingdoms of the Dúnedain after the War of the Ring, the Dúnedain were reunited under Aragorn II Elessar, Isildur's Heir, and their the might and dignity was lifted up and their glory renewed.[4]

[edit] Characteristics

[edit] Appearance

They were tall, pale-skinned, with dark hair, shining grey eyes, and proud faces.[10][11][12] Although the stature of those with Númenórean descent decreased from what it once was (more than 2 ranga), the Dúnedain were still about 2 ranga or 6'4" on average.[1]

[edit] Waning of the Dúnedain

The Third Age marked the beginning of the waning of the Dúnedain, in which their gifts of wisdom, nobility, and long life were slowly withdrawn due to the Downfall of Númenor and their mingling with lesser men.[8]

In the beginning of their history, the Dúnedain were blessed with a lifespan thrice the life of lesser men, yet this ever-diminished over the course of the Third Age.[6][2]

In Arnor, the strife and dissensions between the kingdoms of Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur hastened the waning of the Dúnedain.[6] "More swift was the waning in the North-kingdom, for Eriador became colder and there, the Dúnedain became ever less".[13] The Dúnedain of Arnor, unlike their kin to the South, were of unmingled Númenórean blood.[14] Although, their lifespans ever continued to shorten, the Dúnedain of Arnor, especially their Chieftains, maintained significant longevity living to twice the age of lesser men.[6][15] The Heirs of Isildur even lived up to 160 years or more.[16]

After Gondor's numbers were replenished by lesser Northmen after the Kin-Strife, the mingling did not at first hasten the waning of the Dúnedain, as had been feared, but it still proceeded little by little as it had before.[8] However, after the fall of the Kings, the waning was much swifter in Gondor than in Arnor.[6] In fact, Hador the seventh Ruling Steward of Gondor was the last Gondorian to live 150 years and after his time the life-span of those with Númenórean blood waned more rapidly.[17] By the time of the War of the Ring, few among the Gondorians passed 100 years with vigour, except in the more pure and noble houses.[18]

Upon the reunification of the Kingdoms of the Dúnedain, the might and dignity of the Dúnedain was lifted up and their glory was renewed.[4] Greatest among them was their High King Aragorn II Elessar who lived up to 210 years (the longest since King Arvegil),[6] and he received in some measure their former gifts. He wedded Arwen Undomiel, daughter of Elrond, brother of Elros first King of Númenór, and so restored the majesty and high lineage of the royal House of Telcontar, but their life-span was not restored and continued to wane until it became as that of other men.[17]

[edit] Language

After the Downfall, Sindarin was the regular spoken tongue of the Exiles of Númenor.[19] When they arrived on the coasts of Middle-earth, few among the colonists on the coasts remembered Sindarin since the neglected Adûnaic was used as a lingua franca among the Men of Middle-earth, which developed into the Westron tongue.[20][2] They used therefore the Common Speech intheir dealing with other folk and in the government of their wide realms; but they enlarged the language and enriched it with many words drawn from the Elven-tongues. In the days of the Númenorean kings, Westron became used more and more by the Dúnedain themselves.[2]

Among the Dúnedain, "the kings and high lords, and indeed all those of Númenórean blood in any degree," for long used Sindarin.[21] Many of the Men of Gondor could also speak the Elvish tongues, a notable distinction and characteristic among the Dúnedain there.[2] Sindarin had long ceased to be a "first language" in Gondor, but was learned in early youth (by the Dúnedain) from loremasters, and used by them as a mark of rank and high-blood. For example, the Stewards of Gondor belonged to a noble family of Dúnedain of the ancient Faithful who used (beside the Common Speech) the Númenórean Sindarin tongue after the fashion of Gondor. It had changed very little since the Downfall of Númenor and though the Men of Gondor altered some of the sounds, they could still understand the Elves and be understood by them.[17] Westron became used more and more by the Dúnedain of Gondor themselves, so that at the time of the War of the Ring, Sindarin was known to only a small part of the peoples of Gondor (and spoken daily by fewer); they dwelt mostly in Minas Tirith and the adjacent townlands, and in the land of the tributary princes of Dol Amroth.[2]

Quenya was used by the Dúnedain, a tradition which has continued from the loremasters of Númenor, to be used for places of fame and reverence in addition to the names of royalty and men of great renown.[22][2] All the royal names of the Kings of Gondor as well as all the Stewards until Mardil Voronwë were Quenya names.[2][23] All the royal names of the Kings of Arnor were Quenya names. The Kings of Arthedain and later the Chieftains of the Dúnedain, however, took Sindarin names.[24] At the end of the Third Age, there were more Men (being of Dúnedain descent) that knew Quenya or spoke Sindarin than there were Elves (those of Lindon, Rivendell, and Lórien) who did either.[22]

[edit] Etymology

"I thought you knew enough Elvish at least to know dún-adan: Man of the West, Númenórean."
Bilbo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring, "Many Meetings"

They are also called the Men of the West and the Men of Westernesse (direct translations of the Sindarin term) and comes from dûn and adan.

The Quenya name was Núnatan (pron. [ˈnuːnatan]), pl. Núnatani (pron. [nuːˈnatani]).

The Westron name for Dúnadan was simply Adûn, "westerner", but this name was seldom used.

The Silmarillion is explicit in noting that "Númenoreans" and "Dúnedain" are synonymous terms. Nevertheless, it seems more usual to call those born in Númenor "Númenoreans" and their descendants living in Middle-earth post-Akallabêth "Dúnedain".

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", "Appendix: Númenórean Linear Measures"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Men"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix D: The Port of Lond Daer"
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "II. The Appendix on Languages"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Minas Tirith"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "At the Sign of the Prancing Pony"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VIII. The Tale of Years of the Third Age", p. 227
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, pp. 11-3
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VI. The Tale of Years of the Second Age"
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "IX. The Making of Appendix A": (ii) "The Tale of Aragorn an Arwen", p. 263
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil"
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Houses of Healing"
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", note 16
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "X. Of Dwarves and Men", "The Atani and their Languages"
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "II. The Appendix on Languages", p. 34
  22. 22.0 22.1 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 347, (dated 17 December 1972)
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Southern Line: Heirs of Anarion"
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Northern Line: Heirs of Isildur"