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The name Eärendil refers to more than one character, item or concept. For a list of other meanings, see Eärendil (disambiguation).
Jenny Dolfen - Earendil the Mariner.jpg
"Earendil the Mariner" by Jenny Dolfen
Biographical Information
Other namesAzrubêl (A), Ardamírë (Q mn), The Mariner, The Blessed, Bright, Halfelven
LocationGondolin, Havens of Sirion
BirthF.A. 503
HouseHouse of Hador
HeritageMan father, Elf mother
ParentageTuor and Idril
ChildrenElros and Elrond
Physical Description
SteedVingilótë (ship)
GalleryImages of Eärendil
"Eärendil was a mariner
that tarried in Arvernien
he built a boat of timber felled
in Nimbrethil to journey in...
Eärendil by Bilbo Baggins

Eärendil the Mariner (Q "sea-friend", pron. [ˌe.aˈrendil]) was one of the Peredhil (S "Half-elven"), and an important figure in the legends of the Elder Days. Descended from all the Three Houses of the Edain, he was the first known person to reach Aman in the First Age. He was crucial in the War of Wrath and the patriarch of the line of the Kings of Númenor through his son Elros.


[edit] History

Šárka Škorpíková - Travelling South
The son of Tuor and Idril, daughter of King Turgon, Eärendil was raised as a child in Gondolin. Eärendil was seven years old when Gondolin fell, and narrowly escaped death at the hands of his kinsman Maeglin during the battle. He was borne out on the shoulders of Idril's house-carle Hendor. As they rested in Tasarinan, the waters of Ulmo awoke the sea-longing in both father and son.[1]

He lived afterwards in Arvernien by the Havens of Sirion. Eärendil later became the leader of the people who lived there, and married Elwing, daughter of Dior the son of Beren and Lúthien. They had two sons, Elrond and Elros.

Ted Nasmith - Eärendil the Mariner

With the aid of Círdan the Shipwright, Eärendil built a ship, Vingilótë (or Vingilot), and sailed around the seas west of Middle-earth, leaving his wife behind in Arvernien. At this time Elwing had in her possession the Silmaril that Beren had wrested from Morgoth. News of this came to the sons of Fëanor that were still living, and they attacked the people living in Arvernien, and slew most of them. But Elwing, rather than be captured, threw herself with the Silmaril into the sea. The Silmaril was not lost, however:

Steamey - Eärendil and Elwing
"For Ulmo bore up Elwing out of the waves, and he gave her the likeness of a great white bird, and upon her breast there shone as a star the Silmaril, as she flew over the water to seek Eärendil her beloved. On a time of night Eärendil at the helm of his ship saw her come towards him, as a white cloud exceeding swift beneath the moon, as a star over the sea moving in strange courses, a pale flame on wings of storm. And it is sung that she fell from the air upon the timbers of Vingilot, in a swoon, nigh unto death for the urgency of her speed, and Eärendil took her to his bosom; but in the morning with marveling eyes he beheld his wife in her own form beside him with her hair upon his face, and she slept."
― "Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"

Hearing of the tragedy that had befallen in Arvernien, Eärendil then sought after Valinor, and he and Elwing found their way there at last. Eärendil thus became the first of all mortals to set foot in Valinor. Eärendil then went before the Valar, and asked them for aid for Men and Elves in Middle-earth, to fight against Morgoth; and the Valar accepted his plea.

Because Eärendil had undertaken this errand on behalf of Men and Elves, and not for his own sake, Manwë forbore to deal out the punishment of death that was due; and because both Eärendil and Elwing were descended from a union of Elves and Men, Manwë granted to them and their sons the gift to choose to which race they would be joined (a gift that was further passed to the children of Elrond, who became known as the Half-elven). Elwing chose to be one of the Elves. Eärendil would have rather been one of the Men; however, for the sake of his wife, he chose to be one of the Elves.

"But when all was spoken, Manwë gave judgement, and he said: 'In this matter the power of doom is given to me. The peril that he ventured for love of the Two Kindreds shall not fall upon Eärendil, nor shall it fall upon Elwing his wife, who entered into peril for love of him; but they shall not walk again ever among Elves or Men in the Outer Lands. And this is my decree concerning them: to Eärendil and to Elwing, and to their sons, shall be given leave each to choose freely to which kindred their fates shall be joined, and under which kindred they shall be judged.'"
― "Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"
Ted Nasmith - Eärendil and the Battle of Eagles and Dragons

The Valar, having listened to Eärendil's plea, went with a mighty host to Middle-earth, and overthrew Morgoth, and bound him. Eärendil took part in the battle, his ship Vingilótë was blessed by the Valar, and filled with a shining white flame and sent to the skies. He sailed at its helm with the Silmaril bound upon his brow. Alongside Thorondor and the Eagles, Eärendil the Mariner slew the great dragon Ancalagon and cast it down onto Thangorodrim, the event which, along with the sheer devastation caused by the War of Wrath, led to the Ruin of Beleriand.

[edit] Legacy

See also: Star of Eärendil
Jef Murray - Earendil

Eärendil lived on in Valinor and the gleaming of the Silmaril upon his brow could still be seen in the skies of the distant West as the bright Evening Star.[2] Those who remained in Middle-earth called it Gil-Estel (S. "Star of High Hope").

In the Second Age, the descendants of the Edain followed the Star of Eärendil to reach Elenna. When Númenor fell under the Shadow, Tar-Atanamir mentioned Eärendil's fate to argue about immortality to the Messengers of the Valar; the Messengers responded that his was a fate apart as a Half-elven, and he was bound to the sky, unable to return, whereas the Númenóreans demanded the liberties of both Elves and Men.[3]

Bilbo Baggins wrote the Song of Eärendil[4] and the legend of Eärendil also inspired the poem Errantry.[5]

[edit] Genealogy

House of Hador
House of Haleth
House of Bëor
F.A. 444 - 472
F.A. 450 - 472
Y.T. 1300 - F.A. 510
d. Y.T. 1500
b. F.A. 472
b. Y.T.
b. F.A. 503
b. F.A. 503
F.A. 532 - S.A. 442
b. F.A. 532
Kings of Númenor
T.A. 2931 - Fo.A. 120
T.A. 241 - Fo.A. 121

[edit] Names and etymology

Eärendil was known by many epithets: Eärendil Halfelven[6], Eärendil the Blessed[7], Bright Eärendil[2][3], and Eärendil the Mariner[2][8].

Eärendil was his given father-name. His mother-name was Ardamírë. Eärendil is a Quenya name, meaning "Devoted to the Sea", literaly "Sea lover" (eär + -ndil).[9][10]

Although these Quenya names were not given Sindarin forms in the legendarium, experimental Sindarized forms, such as Aerendil and Aerennel, were used by Tolkien in certain manuscripts.[11]

Eärendil was translated as Azrubêl in Adûnaic, from azar ("sea") and the stem bel-.[12]

Tolkien used the original Old English name Eärendel for all drafts previous to The Lord of the Rings, and first he related it with the Elvish words ea ("eagle") and earen ("eyre"), but the exact meaning of the name remained unclear within the Legendarium until he remade into Quenya to Earendil.[13]

[edit] Inspiration

One of the two Heraldic Devices Tolkien designed for the House of Eärendil

While Eärendil is a Quenya name inside the Legendarium, Tolkien created the name based on Old English literature. Tolkien himself stated that the name was derived from the Anglo-Saxon éarendel.[14] He says that he was struck by the "great beauty" of the name as early as 1913, which he perceived as "entirely coherent with the normal style of A-S, but euphonic to a peculiar degree in that pleasing but not 'delectable' language."

There is a poem by Tolkien dated to 1914 entitled The Voyage of Eärendel the Evening Star.[15] Tolkien was also aware of the name's Germanic cognates (Old Norse Aurvandill, Lombardic Auriwandalo), and the question why the Anglo-Saxon one rather than the Lombardic or Proto-Germanic form should be taken up in the mythology is alluded to in The Notion Club Papers.[16] The Old Norse together with the Anglo-Saxon evidence point to an astronomical myth, the name referring to a star, or a group of stars, and the Anglo-Saxon in particular points to the Morning Star as the herald of the rising Sun (in Crist christianized to refer to John the Baptist).

Tolkien was particularly inspired by the lines in Christ:

éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended
"Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / sent over Middle-earth to men."

which can be taken as the inspiration not only for the role of Eärendil in Tolkien's work, but also for the term Middle-earth (translating Middangeard) for the inhabitable lands.

The first line is paralleled by Frodo's exclamation in Shelob's Lair, "Aiya Eärendil Elenion Ancalima!"[17] which is in Quenya and translates as "Hail Eärendil, brightest of stars!". Frodo's exclamation was in reference to the "Star-glass" he carried, which contained the light of Eärendil's star, the Silmaril.

[edit] See also


  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Tuor and the Fall of Gondolin"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Many Meetings"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, "Preface"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Tuor and the Fall of Gondolin"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Appendix: Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Shibboleth of Fëanor": The names of Finwë's descendants
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Shibboleth of Fëanor": Note 52
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Problem of Ros", p. 373
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, Appendix: Names in the Lost Tales – Part One, p. 251, entry "Eärendel"
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 297, (dated August 1967)
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "The Tale of Eärendel", pp. 267-269
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part Two: The Notion Club Papers"
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Shelob's Lair"