War of the Ring
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***[[King of the Dead]] †
***[[King of the Dead]] †
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**[[Buckland]] and [[Bree]]
**[[Buckland]] and [[Bree]]
Revision as of 22:17, 9 February 2019
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|War of the Ring|
|Osgiliath (1) · Fords of Isen · Isengard · Hornburg · Osgiliath (2) · Dale · Siege of Gondor · Pelennor Fields · Black Gate · Dol Guldur · Bywater|
|Previous war: Corsair Wars|
|War of the Ring|
|Beginning: T.A. 3018 (earlier fighting in Gondor)||End: T.A. 3019|
|Place: Northwestern Middle-earth|
|Outcome: Free Peoples' victory; destruction of the One Ring, Sauron and Mordor; start of the Fourth Age; Arnor and Gondor reunited under restoration of the King of Gondor|
|Major battles: Sauron's attack on Osgiliath, Battles of the Fords of Isen, Battle of Isengard, Battle of the Hornburg, Faramir's defense of Osgiliath, Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Battle of the Morannon, Battle Under Trees, Fall of Dol Guldur, Battle of Dale, Battle of Bywater|
|Free Peoples of Middle-earth: Gondor, Rangers of the North, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, Woodland Realm, Rivendell, Fangorn, Beornings||Under Sauron: Mordor, Dol Guldur, Orcs of the Misty Mountains, Rhûn, Harad, Umbar, and Khand|
Under Saruman: Isengard and Dunland
||Sauron† Saruman †|
- "So we come to it in the end, [...] the great battle of our time, in which many things shall pass away."
- ― Théoden
The War of the Ring was the great conflict at the end of the Third Age, named for the One Ring and the importance this had in the final outcome. The war was fought between Sauron, the Dark Lord of Mordor who attempted to conquer Middle-earth as he nearly did in the Second Age; and the Free peoples, being a loose alliance of Elves and Men led by the Wise. Saruman was a third power based in Orthanc.
Sauron at all times held the military advantage in the War, due to his overwhelming forces; not only Orcs and Trolls, but Men of Harad and the East. His main objective was to overthrow Gondor, his neighbour and the strongest of his enemies. He had such forces at his command, though, that he was able to fight the war on many fronts, simultaneously attacking Dale, Erebor and the Wood-elves in the far north, and Lothlórien from his secondary stronghold at Dol Guldur. There can be no doubt that, had the Wise not achieved and maintained possession of the Ring, Sauron would ultimately have been victorious.
The policy of the Wise was based around the Quest of the Ring: a company of nine under the leadership of Gandalf travelled from Rivendell with the One Ring, with the hope of taking it to Orodruin in Mordor and there destroying it. Because the Ring held much of Sauron's native power, they realised that in unmaking it, they would also defeat its creator.
Saruman had claimed alliance with both the Wise and the Dark Lord, but was ultimately fighting for his own ends. In alliance with the Dunlendings, and having Orcs at his own command, his objective was the defeat of Rohan. Until late in the War, he held the advantage, defeating Rohan twice at the Battles of the Fords of Isen.
- See also: Rings of Power
Sauron had been defeated in the War of the Last Alliance, but because of Isildur's refusal to destroy the One Ring, he was not entirely vanquished. He survived in spirit form, and the foundations of Barad-dûr were also not destroyed. Sauron's spirit wandered the wastelands of Middle-earth for over 1000 years, but eventually he rebuilt his power and became a threat once again. Around T.A. 1000, the Valar sent Maiar emissaries to Middle-earth to help the Free peoples against the growing evil.
Indeed, Orcs were multiplying and the Witch-king from his fortress in Angmar waged unending war against Arnor. Moria and Minas Ithil fell and were abandoned, among other battles, plagues, and catastrophes which ended the Kingdom of Arnor and the Royal line of Gondor. The evil entity known only as the Necromancer fled from Dol Guldur because of Gandalf, allowing for some centuries of calmness.
In the meantime, Sauron's One Ring was found by two of the Stoors in the Gladden River. The Hobbit who got it, under its influence, was corrupted as Gollum and eventually retreated in the Goblin-town under the Misty Mountains. By the end of the Age, Sauron attempted to gather back all the Rings to augment his power. He took the Nine, but of the Seven he managed to reclaim only three, the last of them being the Ring of Thrór but could not find the One.
Gandalf was concerned about the weak state of the North. Smaug the Dragon had destroyed both the Kingdom under the Mountain and the town of Dale. About Erebor was desolation which Sauron might use to regain the northern passes in the mountains and the old lands of Angmar. Gandalf, seeing no hope in Thorin's plans of battle and war against Smaug, persuaded him that he should go secretly to Erebor to reclaim its treasure, and to take with him Bilbo Baggins of the Shire.. Smaug was killed by Bard, Erebor was retaken, and most importantly, the kingdoms of Erebor and Dale were re-established. In a small incident along the way, the One Ring was lost by Gollum and wound up in Bilbo's hands.
During the Quest of Erebor, the White Council attacked Dol Guldur and the Necromancer withdrew. However, Sauron returned to his old abode in Mordor to reconstruct Barad-dûr and ten years after the fall of Smaug he sent three Nazgûl to reoccupy Dol Guldur. He declared himself openly in T.A. 2951. The White Council met for a last time in T.A. 2953 to discuss the Rings of Power, when Saruman reassured them that the One Ring had been lost for ever in the Sea. After this, Saruman fortified Isengard, spied on Gandalf, learning thus his interest in the Shire, and started sending agents.
Sauron began reassembling his forces for the final blow against the hated remnants of Númenor and the Eldar. Armies of Easterlings from Khand and beyond the Sea of Rhûn reinforced Mordor, joined by men from South Harad. Orcs, trolls, and other foul beasts were multiplying while Sauron's minions were searching the Anduin for the One Ring.
A year before the war, while Gollum was looking for his ring, he was taken to Mordor and interrogated by Sauron, who learned that the One Ring was in the possession of a "Baggins" in a place called "the Shire". However Sauron was led into thinking that the Shire was on the banks of the Gladden River. Gollum was then set free, but caught by Aragorn, who placed him in the care of the Silvan Elves and held him in Mirkwood.
A messenger from Mordor visited King Dáin II and asked information on Bilbo and the Ring. Meanwhile, Gandalf reading the Scroll of Isildur in Minas Tirith, also realized that Bilbo's Ring was the One Ring.
Sauron made an attack on Osgiliath on June 20 of T.A. 3018 which was the beginning of the War. Sauron saw it as an opportunity to test Denethor II's strength. Boromir and Faramir managed to defend and destroy the ancient Bridge in order to deny the enemy access to the western side of the river.
About the same time the Elves of Mirkwood were attacked and during the fray, the captive Gollum escaped and would not be found nor by the Elves nor by Sauron's servants. The following months, Faramir led several Ranger attacks deep into Mordor-occupied Ithilien, ambushing enemy armies moving to the Black Gate.
The presence of the Nazgûl in the battle of Osgiliath served to make them seem like a military asset against Gondor, concealing from the Wise their true mission, to hunt the Ring. After the assault Sauron sent the Nine unclothed and invisible to search for the Ring under the leadership of the Witch-king. The Ringwraith Khamûl was unable to find the "Shire" in the vales of Anduin. The Witch-king searched north and west for Gollum or the Shire. Gandalf heard from Radagast about the riders and went to Isengard for counsel, where he was trapped by Saruman.
Sauron's plans were halted when he received word of the prophecy in Gondor and the doings of the turncoat Saruman, and concluded that the Wise did not yet have possession of the Ring yet, as he feared. Black Riders arrived to Isengard around September 18, but Gandalf had escaped. Traitor Saruman fortified himself in Isengard and convinced the Witch-king that Gandalf alone knew where the Shire and the Ring was, and so the Nine passed into Rohan in search of him. A terrified Wormtongue answered that Gandalf had passed through Rohan, where the Shire was, and even that Saruman had lied to them. The riders were divided into four pairs, and the Witch-King went with the swiftest to Minhiriath. Along the way they captured several spies of Saruman, and found charts and maps of the Shire. They sent along the spy to Bree, warning them that they now belonged to Mordor, not Saruman.
In September 22 they came to Sarn Ford. Although the Dúnedain Rangers were guarding the crossing, their chieftain Aragorn II was away and the Riders captured the ford, killing many of the Rangers. The Witch-king sent Khamûl and three Riders into the Shire while he went east with the others and then returned to watch the Greenway. A Rider came to Hobbiton at nightfall, but failed to capture Frodo who departed that same day carrying the Ring to the east. The hunt continued to Buckland and Bree, aided by Sauron's spies, such as Bill Ferny and Harry Goatleaf, but nonetheless, the Ring escaped them.
In October, Frodo came to Rivendell and during his arrival, the Black Riders were temporarily neutralized and the Ringwraiths were forced to return to Mordor to regroup. Some days later, the Council of Elrond was called, where it was decided that the only way to be free of Sauron and the Ring was to cast the Ring into the Crack of Doom in Mount Doom. Frodo surprised everyone, including himself, by declaring that he would take the Ring. The team who would travel to Mordor departed Rivendell in December.
Saruman's part in the War
Saruman was caught now between the Wise and Sauron as a known traitor to both. He implemented a strategy of controlling the King of Rohan; sending spies to waylay Frodo Baggins on his flight from the Shire; and dispatching raiding parties on likely routes a company of travelers might take the Ring to Gondor. During the fall of the first year of the War, some Ruffians were sent to the Shire to gain control of the region, collecting the crops and suppressing any dissent.
He then endeavored to kill Théoden King's son and nephew and have full control of him. On February 25, T.A. 3019, he sent his forces to attack Rohan's army (commanded by Théodred and Grimbold) at the Isen. Dunlendings, wolf-riders and Uruks clashed against the Rohirrim in the First Battle of the Fords of Isen with orders to slay Prince Théodred at any cost. Erkenbrand took command of the western defenses of Rohan. He sent a messenger to Edoras to inform the King of the ill news and ask for reinforcements, but Gríma Wormtongue delayed the message. Elfhelm joined Grimbold of Grimslade and were left in charge of the Fords when Erkenbrand tried to send stragglers to Helm's Deep. Saruman was successful in eliminating the Prince.
The next day while the Company of the Ring was in the Emyn Muil thinking whether to take the Ring to Minas Tirith or go directly to Mordor, Orcs from Isengard attempted to capture the Ring-bearer; but instead they took Merry and Pippin as prisoners. Éomer hearing of the descent of the Orcband set out from Eastfold against Théoden's orders and overtook them outside Fangorn Forest, unknowingly setting the hobbits free.
Having heard the news about Théodred's death, Erkenbrand, who became the commander of Rohan's western armies, gathered the forces of Grimbold and Elfhelm to assault Isen once more in the Second Battle of the Fords of Isen (March 2). Though they had a force of about 2000 men and had constructed a shield wall to hold off the enemy, Saruman's forces overcame them and scattered the retreating Rohirrim across Rohan.
Saruman's victory would not last; he did not know that on the very same day, Gandalf had healed Théoden from Wormtongue's influence. In the meantime, the Ents after ending their long Entmoot, decided to go to Isengard and battle Saruman.
The next day (March 3) seeking to take the fight away from his people, Théoden brought around a thousand horsemen to the Fords of Isen along with any others in Edoras. Among this force were Éomer, Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas. On their way they found Ceorl who reported a defeat to the Fords; Théoden then redirected his troops to Helm's Deep, which was commanded by Gamling in his lord Erkenbrand's absence. Against overwhelming odds, they fought the Battle of the Hornburg for two days against Uruk-hai and Dunlendings, until the Deeping Wall was breached and all seemed lost. The surviving horsemen rode out to meet the hordes of Isengard.
At that moment, Gandalf returned, bringing with him Erkenbrand and many other soldiers from Westfold. They attacked the army from the rear, driving the attackers back into a forest of Huorns. While Saruman suffered this military defeat, Isengard was attacked by a march of Ents in the Battle of Isengard who drowned all the valley.
After the defeat of Saruman, Pippin looked in the Orthanc-stone and saw the Eye of Sauron; Gandalf believed that seeing the Hobbit, Sauron would imagine that the Ring-bearer was caught by Saruman's Orcs and that they could make good use of the delay caused by this confusion. The protagonists of the War separated, anticipating Sauron's attack on Minas Tirith. Gandalf set out for Minas Tirith taking Pippin since he would not be safe. Théoden set out from the Hornburg for Harrowdale.
Aragorn consulted the Stone of Orthanc and confronted Sauron subduing the stone’s power to his own will. In doing so, however, Aragorn has alerted Sauron to his existence as Isildur’s heir to the throne of Gondor. Gimli feared that Sauron would now release his forces sooner because of this revelation. Aragorn, however, hoped such a hasty move may weaken the Enemy’s attack. They set out with the Grey Company to Dunharrow and took the Paths of the Dead. Théoden would come to Dunharrow.
Along with the Darkness, a host from Minas Morgul set forth toward Minas Tirith, as witnessed by Frodo, Sam and Gollum who passed the Cross-roads. Later Orcs from the Morannon took Cair Andros and passed into Anórien.Denethor II called the Council of Gondor together on that day and it advised him to make no stroke of war against the enemy due to the threat from the south.
While preparing against Gondor, Sauron also begun campaigns to conquer Wilderland, activating his armies stationed in Dol Guldur and eastern allies. This would bring the eastern half of Middle-earth entirely into his dominion. On March 11 Orcs from Dol Guldur attacked Lothlórien and Eastern Rohan. The next day the invaders of Rohan were utterly defeated by Ents.
In Gondor, Most of the citizens were sent north and west; except those in the arts of healing and boys who refused to leave. The same day, 3,000 men from Belfalas, Dol Amroth and other places arrived to assist the garrison. But, it was less then a tenth of what was needed. Most that were needed were holding off the Black Fleet of Umbar.
Denethor II sent Faramir to Osgiliath to intercept the Morgul-host. The Witch-King led the assault upon the western side the next morning aided by boats built in secret, and swiftly overwhelmed the defenders and on 13 March Faramir retreated to the Causeway Forts; Gandalf, upon learning the Witch-King was on the field, the next day went from the city to the Rammas Echor where the forces which had fallen back. It was taken by blasting stones, and a charge by Prince Imrahil and the Knights of Dol Amroth saved Faramir who fell wounded by an Easterling champion.
As Pelennor was overrun, Denethor sent a sortie of cavalry to assist the defenders who retreated back to the city. Denethor, upon seeing his son in this grave state, lost his will to fight and gave no more thought to the defense of his city. He was seriously wounded while Pelennor was overrun. The Siege of Gondor began.
Meanwhile, invaders from Umbar and Harad who sought to capture Linhir and the fords of the River Gilrain. The men of Lamedon fought against them and the arrival of Aragorn with the Army of the Dead from Erech terrified both sides. As Aragorn pressed on to Pelargir, Angbor mustered as many horsemen as he could, helped by the fast-spreading rumour of the return of the Heir of Isildur. Soon later the group reached Pelargir, drove the Corsairs away and captured their fleet an assault he had also carried out decades earlier.
On 15 March three simultaneous battles occurred.
In Rhovanion, an army was sent to destroy the realm of Thranduil and a second assault against Lothlórien was made. After a long battle under the trees, and great ruin of fire the Orcs were defeated on both fronts on the same day.
In Gondor, after the enemy passed Osgiliath, Pelennor outside Minas Tirith was overrun, despite the armies that gathered from southern Gondor already in the days before the battle. The hosts of Mordor dug pits and set up siege weapons beyond the city's range as the Nazgul swooped near the city uttering cries of death, demoralizing the defenders. Then the weapons began launching stones at the city, many of which would burst into flame as they came crashing down. Then, the heads of all those that had been slain in battle were flung over the city. The whole first level was soon in flames.
Near midnight the Witch-King launched his assault pushing many defenders to the higher levels, while others were slain trying to reach the walls. Many towers were also destroyed as they rolled forward. 
The Witch-King rode assisted by magic the battering ram Grond as it hit the Great Gate of Minas Tirith. As he entered the gate he was confronted by Gandalf who alone stood steadfast. Then a cock crowed and horn from the west sounded. The Witch-King left to deal with the Riders of Rohan at the Rammas Echor. The Battle of the Pelennor Fields began.
The combined army of Orcs, Haradrim, Men of Rhûn and Men of Khand, outnumbered the Rohirrim at least 10 to 1, but lost almost a third of their own forces. In the process King Théoden was killed, and the Witch-King was destroyed by Théoden's niece, Lady Éowyn of Rohan. When all seemed lost, a fleet of enemy ships with black sails arrived at the landings to the south of the Pelennor in the Rammas, but it was actually manned by Aragorn. As his army drove north a great part of Mordor's forces were pinned between Aragorn and Éomer's cavalry, and were "caught between the hammer and the anvil".
Meanwhile in the North, Easterlings crossed the Carnen, and King Brand was driven back to Dale. He gathered there with the Dwarves of Erebor, and engaged in the Battle of Dale against the Orcs at the feet of the Lonely Mountain for three days until (March 17) he fell alongside King Dáin Ironfoot. Many Dwarves and Men took refuge in Erebor and were besieged by the Easterlings. However news from the defeat at the Pelennor reached the Easterlings who began to fail.
The next day it was understood that the army vanquished in the Battle of the Pelennor was only a fraction of Sauron's forces, and eventually Minas Tirith would not manage to withstand forever. Imrahil expressed concern for the defence of Gondor. Aragorn assured him that Angbor was marching with 4,000 men through Lossarnach to garrison Minas Tirith.
The Host of the West marched from Minas Tirith on 18 March to confront Sauron. During that course, Lothlórien was attacked for a third and last time by Orcs (22 March). After much destruction, the Elves repulsed them once again.
During the course of the Battle of the Morannon against Trolls, Orcs and Men, the eight remaining Nazgûl attacked the army of the West. The Eagles of the Misty Mountains, led by Gwaihir, arrived and attacked the Ringwraiths. When all hope seemed lost, Frodo failed his mission: he claimed the One Ring for himself, and Sauron was suddenly aware that Frodo had the Ring and was in the Cracks of Doom. Finally realizing that his enemies meant to destroy his Ring, Sauron immediately sent the Nazgûl to Mount Doom to intercept Frodo. However, Gollum wrenched the Ring from Frodo but fell accidentally into fire, destroying the Ring. The hosts of Mordor, suddenly without direction, hesitated as Sauron's power was overthrown.
The Nazgûl were all destroyed as they flew over Mount Doom just as it underwent a gigantic eruption. Barad-dûr, the Black Gate, and the Towers of the Teeth collapsed to ruin. The Orcs and other creatures of Sauron were completely directionless with the Dark Lord's demise and were easily decimated by the army of the West and the Easterlings eventually threw down their weapons and surrendered. 
On March 28 with Celeborn at their head, Elves crossed the Anduin in many boats and stormed Dol Guldur. Galadriel came after them in the Fall of Dol Guldur, throwing down the walls of the fortress and laying bare its pits, so that the forest was cleansed. Thranduil cleared all the orcs and foul beings from North Mirkwood.
Scouring of the Shire
The War did not end with the defeat of Sauron, for Saruman fled northward after the capture of Orthanc, and established himself in the Shire, bending the Hobbits to his will by threat of violence and the persuasive power of his voice. The return of Frodo Baggins and his companions from the coronation of King Elessar and the reunification of Gondor and Arnor, led to their arrest by the Shire-hobbits but they talked their way out.
A small group of Ruffians was encountered, and Pippin declared the return of the King to them, and the message that emissaries were on their way. The group was routed, but managed to get a message to a bigger contingent in Waymeet. 20 Men marched from Hobbiton towards Bywater, and 200 Bucklanders and Cottons answered the call of Captain Merry's horn.
The Men walked up Bywater Road, to the point where Farmer Cotton was standing and found themselves heavily outnumbered. Their leader fell by arrows as he tried to strike at Merry. The rest surrendered. Pippin had set up a rebellion in Tookland, and returned with one hundred Tooks when the larger group of Men from Waymeet arrived the following day and walked straight into a defensive pocket set up by Merry. Merry and Pippin charged from the eastern bank, and Merry killed the leader. Nearly 70 Men were killed and 12 were taken prisoner, while 19 Hobbits died and about 30 were wounded.
After their victory the Hobbits marched on to Bag End, where they found Sharkey. It was not Lotho as had been thought, but rather Saruman who revealed that his servant Gríma killed Lotho. Gríma cut Saruman's throat in a rage for years of oppression and abuse, but was himself shot by Hobbit archers. As the spirit of Saruman rose from its bodily form, it was blown away by a wind from the West; Manwë did not want him back.
This battle is considered to mark the end of the War.
- Main article: Fourth Age
The consequences of the War were "apocalyptical" for the Westlands of Middle-earth. The status quo of many entities were restored, or even radically changed after centuries. Not only the millennia of Sauron's dominion were permanently brought to an end, but the relationships of peoples and races were redefined. It is also notable that during the War many personalities died (Denethor, Théoden, Brand, Dain), and brought their descendants into the aftermath.
The major effect of the war however was that with the destruction of the One Ring, the Three Rings that had maintained the realms of the Elves in Middle-earth lost their power, and the Elves began to leave for the Undying Lands; significant Elves who marked the history of the Westlands for millennia, like Galadriel and Elrond departed, setting stage for the Dominion of Men.
The downfall of Sauron brought the restoration of the long-awaited line of Kings of Gondor, the restoration of Arnor and simultaneously the reunification of the two kingdoms; after of centuries of nomadic wandering the Rangers of the North had again a kingdom and the Gondorians had a king. This King was Aragorn II a descendant both of Isildur and Anárion; furthermore, his marriage with Arwen reunited the lines of Elrond and Elros since the First Age.
Other political repercussions were the strengthening of the relationships between the Kingdom and Rohan, new relationships with the Ents (who now occupied Treegarth, former Isengard), the Woses and the Hobbits, now known as free peoples. On the Elven New Year, Celeborn and Thranduil renamed Mirkwood as Eryn Lasgalen and Celeborn took the southern part below East Bight, naming it East Lórien. The wide forest inbetween was given to the Beornings and the Woodmen.
- "You were born at the end of a great age, Elanorellë"
- ― Samwise Gamgee, Sauron Defeated, The Epilogue
All the above events made historians to mark the years following the War as the end of the Third Age.
Sauron and his allies
- Orthanc and Dunland
- Dol Guldur
- Khamûl †
- Orcs of the Misty Mountains
- Kingdom of Gondor
- Minas Tirith
- Dol Amroth
- Forlong the Fat †
- Ringló Vale
- Dervorin †
- Shipmen of Ethir Anduin
- Pinnath Gelin
- Hirluin the Fair †
- White Mountains
- Chiefdom of Arnor
- Kingdom of Rohan
- Woodland Realm
- The Shire
- Fangorn Forest
- Kingdom Under the Mountain
- Kingdom of Dale
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Muster of Rohan"
- ↑ "the Nine [Sauron] has gathered to himself; the Seven also, or else they are destroyed." J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Shadow of the Past"
- ↑ "You saw the Eye of him that holds the Seven and the Nine."
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Quest of Erebor"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Riddles in the Dark"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Last Writings"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring"
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
- ↑ 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Great Years"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Strider"
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Breaking of the Fellowship"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Riders of Rohan"
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Helm's Deep"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Flotsam and Jetsam"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Palantír"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Passing of the Grey Company"
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Siege of Gondor"
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Last Debate"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Mount Doom"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound"
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Scouring of the Shire"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix D, "The Calendars"