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Tolkien Gateway:IPA

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These are charts for pronouncing some of the principal [[languages]] of [[Arda]] using the [[Wikipedia:International Phonetic Alphabet|International Phonetic Alphabet]].  Many of these IPA articulations are going to be 100% ''exact'' (there are no laboratory recordings of the speech of real-life [[Eldar]], considering they are fictional), but they are phonemic.
+
These are charts for pronouncing some of the principal [[languages]] of [[Arda]] using the [[Wikipedia:International Phonetic Alphabet|International Phonetic Alphabet]].  Many of these IPA articulations are not going to be 100% ''exact'' (there are no laboratory recordings of the speech of real-life [[Eldar]], considering they are fictional), but they are phonemic.
  
 
==Charts==
 
==Charts==
Line 96: Line 96:
  
 
===[[Khuzdul]]===
 
===[[Khuzdul]]===
 +
Note that there is no '''p''' or '''ph''' in Khuzdul.
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
Line 153: Line 154:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''Ô, ô''' || {{IPA|[oː]}} || Long vowel.
 
| '''Ô, ô''' || {{IPA|[oː]}} || Long vowel.
|-
 
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
 
|-
 
| '''pp''' || {{IPA|[pː]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
 
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
Line 192: Line 189:
 
!Notes
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|-
| '''A, a, ä''' || {{IPA|[a]}} || Short vowel.
+
!colspan="3"| Short Vowels
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Á, á''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''A, a, ä''' || {{IPA|[a]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ai, ai''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[ɛ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Au, au''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''I, i''' || {{IPA|[i]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''b''' || {{IPA|[b]}}
+
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[ɔ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''C, c''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
+
| '''U, u''' || {{IPA|[u]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''cc''' || {{IPA|[kː]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
!colspan="3"| Long Vowels
 
|-
 
|-
| '''d''' || {{IPA|[d]}}
+
| '''Á, á''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[e]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''Í, í''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Eu, eu''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[ɸ~f]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸ]}}.  The [[Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[f]}}.
+
| '''Ú, ú''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ȝ, ȝ''' || {{IPA|[ɣ]}} || Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of [[Rúmil]]'s [[sarati]].
+
!colspan="3"| Diphthongs
 
|-
 
|-
| '''H, h''' || {{IPA|[x~h]}} || There are two pronunciations of this—{{IPA|[x]}} and {{IPA|[h]}}—but they are actually allophones of the same phoneme.  The [[Vanyar]] use {{IPA|[x]}} in all places.  The [[Ñoldor]] also use {{IPA|[x]}} for '''h''', but pronounce it {{IPA|[h]}} at the beginnings of words.  By the [[Third Age]] in [[Middle-earth]], '''h''' is {{IPA|[h]}} in every position before a vowel.
+
| '''Ai, ai''' || {{IPA|[a͡ɪ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Hl, hl''' || {{IPA|[ɬ~l]}} || Traditionally {{IPA|[ɬ]}}.  By the [[Third Age]] in [[Middle-earth]], it is pronounced {{IPA|[l]}}.
+
| '''Au, au''' || {{IPA|[a͡ʊ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Hr, hr''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''Eu, eu''' || {{IPA|[ɛ͡ʊ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ht''' || {{IPA|[xt, çt~ʃt]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[xt]}} after one of '''a o u''', but {{IPA|[çt~ʃt]}} after one of '''e i'''.  For the latter, {{IPA|[çt]}} is traditional, but [[Gondor]] pronounces it {{IPA|[ʃt]}}.
+
| '''Iu, iu''' || {{IPA|[ɪ͡ʊ]}} || [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[juː]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Hw, hw''' || {{IPA|[ʍ]}} || Labiovelar consonant, not a cluster.
+
| '''Oi, oi''' || {{IPA|[ɔ͡ɪ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''I, i''' || {{IPA|[i]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''Ui, ui''' || {{IPA|[ʊ͡ɪ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Í, í''' || {{IPA|[iː]}} || Long vowel.
+
!colspan="3"| Initial Consonants
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Iu, iu''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''C, c, K, k''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''K, k''' || {{IPA|[k]}} || Alternate spelling of '''c'''.
+
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[ɸ~f]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸ]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[f]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''kk''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Alternate spelling of '''cc'''.
+
| '''Ȝ, ȝ''' || {{IPA|[ɣ]}} || Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of [[Rúmil (elf of Tirion)|Rúmil]]'s [[sarati]].
 
|-
 
|-
| '''L, l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
+
| '''H, h''' || {{IPA|[x~h]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[x]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[h]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ll''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''Hl, hl''' || {{IPA|[ɬ~l]}} || Traditionally {{IPA|[ɬ]}}.  By the [[Third Age]] in [[Middle-earth]], it is pronounced {{IPA|[l]}}.  This phoneme cannot occur medially, where '''ll''' is used instead.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''M, m''' || {{IPA|[m]}}
+
| '''Hr, hr''' || {{IPA|[]}} || This phoneme cannot occur medially, where '''rr''' is used instead.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''mm''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''Hw, hw''' || {{IPA|[ʍ]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Hy, hy''' || {{IPA|[ç~ʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ç]}}. The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃ]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''L, l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''M, m''' || {{IPA|[m]}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''N, n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
 
| '''N, n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ñ, ñ''' || {{IPA|[ŋ]}}
+
| '''Ñ, ñ, Ng, ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋ]}} || This phoneme cannot occur medially, where medial '''ng''' is used instead.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nc''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}}
+
| '''Nw, nw''' || {{IPA|[nˠʷ]}} || Initial '''ñw''' becomes '''nw''' in [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]].  They are not separate phonemes when initial.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ng, ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋɡ, ŋ]}} || Normally {{IPA|[ŋɡ]}}.  If this occurs at the beginning of a word, it is an alternate spelling of '''ñ''' and is pronounced {{IPA|[ŋ]}}.
+
| '''Ñw, ñw, Ngw, ngw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷ]}} || This phoneme cannot occur medially, where medial '''ngw''' is used instead.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ngw, ngw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷɡʷ, ŋʷ]}} || Normally {{IPA|[ŋʷɡʷ]}}.  If this occurs at the beginning of a word, it is an alternate spelling of '''ñw''' and is pronounced {{IPA|[ŋʷ]}}.
+
| '''Ny, ny''' || {{IPA|[ɲ~nʲ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɲ]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nk''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}} || Alternate spelling of '''nc'''.
+
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''Qu, qu''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''S, s''' || {{IPA|[s]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''T, t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Ty, ty''' || {{IPA|[c~ʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[c]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʧ]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''V, v''' || {{IPA|[β~v]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[β]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[v]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''W, w''' || {{IPA|[w]}} || As an initial consonant, this mostly merges with '''v''' outside [[Aman]] in the [[Second Age]].
 +
|-
 +
| '''Y, y''' || {{IPA|[j]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Þ, þ, Th, th''' || {{IPA|[θ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme, but most (though not all) of the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] replace it with '''s''', which becomes the more common pronunciation outside [[Aman]].
 +
|-
 +
!colspan="3"| Medial Single Consonants
 +
|-
 +
| '''c, k''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''d''' ||  || As a medial single consonant, this poorly-understood phoneme is only known to occur in the [[Vanyar]]in word ''[[Aldudénië]]''.
 +
|-
 +
| '''f''' || {{IPA|[ɸ~f]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸ]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[f]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''ȝ''' || {{IPA|[ɣ]}} || Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of [[Rúmil (elf of Tirion)|Rúmil]]'s [[sarati]].
 +
|-
 +
| '''h''' || {{IPA|[x~h]}} || The [[Vanyar]] and the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[x]}}.  [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[h]}} in all locations.
 +
|-
 +
| '''l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''m''' || {{IPA|[m]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''s''' || {{IPA|[s]}} || The [[Vanyar]] do not use this single consonant medially, where either '''z''' or '''þ''' are used instead.
 +
|-
 +
| '''t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''v''' || {{IPA|[β~v]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[β]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[v]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''w''' || {{IPA|[w]}} || As a single medial consonant, this mostly merges with '''v''' outside [[Aman]] in the [[Second Age]].
 +
|-
 +
| '''y''' || {{IPA|[j]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''þ, th''' || {{IPA|[θ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme, but most (though not all) of the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] replace it with '''s''', which becomes the more common pronunciation outside [[Aman]].
 +
|-
 +
| '''z''' || {{IPA|[z]}} || Only the [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme.  Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] it becomes '''r''', and they pronounce '''z''' as '''s''' when reading Vanyarin texts.
 +
|-
 +
!colspan="3"| Medial Consonant Clusters
 +
|-
 +
| '''cc, kk''' || {{IPA|[kʰː]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''ff''' || {{IPA|[ɸː~fː]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸː]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[fː]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''ht''' || {{IPA|[xt, çt~ʃt]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[xt]}} after one of '''a o u''', but {{IPA|[çt~ʃt]}} after one of '''e i'''.  For the latter, {{IPA|[çt]}} is traditional among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]], but the [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce it {{IPA|[ʃt]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''hty''' || {{IPA|[çc~ʃʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[çc]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃʧ]}}, merging with '''hty'''.
 +
|-
 +
| '''hw''' || {{IPA|[ʍː]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''hy''' || {{IPA|[çː~ʃː]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[çː]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃː]}}, which merges with '''sy'''.
 +
|-
 +
| '''lb''' || {{IPA|[lb]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''lc, lk''' || {{IPA|[lk]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''ld''' || {{IPA|[ld]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''lh''' || {{IPA|[lx~lh]}} || The [[Vanyar]] and the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lx]}}.  [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[lh]}} in all locations.
 +
|-
 +
| '''lhy''' || {{IPA|[ʎç~lʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʎç]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lʃ]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''ll''' || {{IPA|[lː]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''lm''' || {{IPA|[lm]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''lp''' || {{IPA|[lp]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''lqu''' || {{IPA|[lkʷ]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''lt''' || {{IPA|[lt]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''lty''' || {{IPA|[ʎc~lʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʎc]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lʧ]}}.
 +
|-
 +
| '''lv''' || {{IPA|[lv~lβ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lβ]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lv]}}, if they don't prefer '''lb''' instead.
 +
|-
 +
| '''lw''' || {{IPA|[lw]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''ly''' || {{IPA|[ʎj~lj]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''mb''' || {{IPA|[mb]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''mm''' || {{IPA|[mː]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''mn''' || {{IPA|[mn]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''mp''' || {{IPA|[mp]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''my''' || {{IPA|[mj]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''nc, nk''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''nd''' || {{IPA|[nd]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''ndy''' || {{IPA|[ɲɟ~nʤ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[nʤ]}}.  Among [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Gondor]] this has merged with '''ny'''.
 +
|-
 +
| '''ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋɡ]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''ngw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷɡʷ]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[nː]}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''nqu''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷkʷ]}}
 
| '''nqu''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷkʷ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Nw, nw''' || {{IPA|[nʷ, nw]}} || This is {{IPA|[nʷ]}} at the beginnings of words, and {{IPA|[nw]}} elsewhere.
+
| '''nt''' || {{IPA|[nt]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ñw, ñw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷ]}}
+
| '''nty''' || {{IPA|[ɲc~nʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɲc]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[nʧ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[o]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''nw''' || {{IPA|[nw]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''ny''' || {{IPA|[ɲj~nj]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɲj]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[nj]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Oi, oi''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''pp''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
+
| '''ps''' || {{IPA|[ps]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''pp''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''pt''' || {{IPA|[pt]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Qu, qu''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Labiovelar consonant, not a cluster.
+
| '''py''' || {{IPA|[pç~pʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[pç]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[pʃ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
+
| '''qu''' || {{IPA|[kʷʍ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rr''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''rc, rk''' || {{IPA|[rk]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''S, s''' || {{IPA|[s]}}
+
| '''rd''' || {{IPA|[rd]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ss''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''rh''' || {{IPA|[rx~rh]}} || The [[Vanyar]] and the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[rx]}}.  [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[rh]}} in all locations.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''T, t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
+
| '''rhw''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Th, th''' || {{IPA|[θ]}} || Alternate spelling of '''þ'''.
+
| '''rm''' || {{IPA|[rm]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''tt''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''rn''' || {{IPA|[rn]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''U, u''' || {{IPA|[u]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''rp''' || {{IPA|[rp]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ú, ú''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''rqu''' || {{IPA|[rkʷ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ui, ui''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''rr''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''V, v''' || {{IPA|[β~v]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[β]}}.  The [[Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[v]}}.
+
| '''rs''' || {{IPA|[rs]}} || Not normally known to exist in Quenya.  Occurs in ''[[Narsil]]'', which is a contraction of ''[[Sun|Anar]]-[[Moon#Other names|Isil]]''.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''W, w''' || {{IPA|[w]}}
+
| '''rt''' || {{IPA|[rt]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''x''' || {{IPA|[ks]}} || This is actually shorthand for '''cs''' or '''ks'''It is a consonant cluster.
+
| '''rv''' || {{IPA|[rv~rβ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[rv]}}The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[rβ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Y, y''' || {{IPA|[j, ʲ]}} || As a consonant in its own right, '''y''' is {{IPA|[j]}}.  But immediately after another consonant, '''y''' is not a consonant of its own, and palatalizes the preceding consonant or consonant cluster—see the relevant entries in this chart.
+
| '''rw''' || {{IPA|[rw]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''z''' || {{IPA|[z]}}
+
| '''ry''' || {{IPA|[rj]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Þ, þ''' || {{IPA|[θ]}}
+
| '''sc, sk''' || {{IPA|[sk]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''þþ''' || {{IPA|[θː]}} || Geminate consonant.
+
| '''sp''' || {{IPA|[sp]}}
|}
+
====palatalized consonants====
+
When a consonant or consonant cluster is followed by '''y''', then the '''y''' is not a consonant in its own right and the consonant or cluster preceding it is instead palatalized.
+
*Not all palatalized consonants are attested in official sources, but many are possible in original [[Neo-Quenya]] texts because of Quenya grammar.  When a consonant cluster is palatalized, every consonant in the cluster is palatalized.
+
*Note the absence of '''cy gy'''—they are forbidden, instead becoming '''ty dy'''.  Likewise, the clusters '''ncy ngy''' become '''nty ndy''' among the [[Vanyar]], or '''nty ny''' among the [[Ñoldor]].
+
{|class="wikitable"
+
 
|-
 
|-
!Spelling
+
| '''squ''' || {{IPA|[skʷ]}}
!IPA
+
|-
!Notes
+
| '''ss''' || {{IPA|[sː]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''st''' || {{IPA|[st]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''sty''' || {{IPA|[ɕc]}} || Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]], this is distinct from '''hty'''.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃʧ]}}, merging with '''hty'''.
 +
|-
 +
| '''sw''' || {{IPA|[sʍ]}} || This phoneme is not believed to occur among the [[Vanyar]], who use '''zw''' or '''þw''' instead.
 +
|-
 +
| '''sy''' || {{IPA|[ɕç]}} || Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]], this is distinct from '''hy'''.  [[Gondor]] pronounces this [[ʃː]], which merges with '''hy'''.  This phoneme is not believed to occur among the [[Vanyar]], who use '''zy''' or '''þy''' instead.
 +
|-
 +
| '''ts''' || {{IPA|[ts]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''tt''' || {{IPA|[tʰː]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''tw''' || {{IPA|[tʍ]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''ty''' || {{IPA|[cʰː~ʧʰː]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[cʰː]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʧʰː]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''by''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''vy''' || {{IPA|[vj~βj]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[vj]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[βj]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''dy''' || {{IPA|[ɟ~dʒ]}} || '''gy''' becomes this.  {{IPA|[ɟ]}} is traditional.
+
| '''x''' || {{IPA|[ks]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''fy''' || {{IPA|[ɸʲ~fʲ]}}
+
| '''zw''' || {{IPA|[zw]}} || Only the [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme.  Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] it becomes '''rw''', and they pronounce '''zw''' as '''sw''' when reading Vanyarin texts.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Hy, hy''' || {{IPA|[ç~ʃ]}} || [[Gondor]] pronounces this {{IPA|[ʃ]}}.
+
| '''zy''' || || Only the [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme, but their pronunciation of it is not entirely certain.  Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] it becomes '''ry''', and they pronounce '''zy''' as '''sy''' when reading Vanyarin texts.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ky''' || || An extremely anomalous example found only in a single morpheme, ''[[kyermë]]'', attested only in [[Númenor]] where Quenya is ceremonial and not spoken as an everyday language.  Considering the noted errors encountered in Númenorëan Quenya (''[[Elendil]]'' was intended to mean "elf-friend" but actually means "star-friend") and the suspicion that this particular ''ky'' is actually a mistaken ''hy'', it is highly unlikely that ''ky'' exists in polished Quenya.  A substitution of ''ty'' is recommended for ''k+y'' synthesis.
+
| '''þw, thw''' || {{IPA|[θʍ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ly''' || {{IPA|[ʎ]}}
+
| '''þy, thy''' || {{IPA|[θç~θʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] (at least those Ñoldor who retain '''þ''') pronounce this {{IPA|[θç]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[θʃ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''my''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''þþ, thth''' || {{IPA|[θː]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ny, ny''' || {{IPA|[ɲ]}}
+
!colspan="3"| Final Consonants
 
|-
 
|-
| '''py''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ry''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''sy''' || {{IPA|[ɕ]}}
+
| '''nt''' || {{IPA|[nt]}} || The only known consonant cluster that may occur at the end of a word.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ty, ty''' || {{IPA|[c~tʃ]}} || '''cy''' or '''ky''' become this.  {{IPA|[c]}} is traditional.  [[Gondor]] pronounces this {{IPA|[tʃ]}}.
+
| '''r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''vy''' || {{IPA|[βʲ~vʲ]}}
+
| '''s''' || {{IPA|[s]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''zy''' || {{IPA|[ʑ]}}
+
| '''t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 355: Line 484:
 
** In words with two syllables, the first syllable is stressed.
 
** In words with two syllables, the first syllable is stressed.
 
** In words with three or more syllables, the antepenultimate (third-to-last) syllable is ''usually'' stressed.  However:
 
** In words with three or more syllables, the antepenultimate (third-to-last) syllable is ''usually'' stressed.  However:
** If the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable is either a long vowel, a diphthong, or ends with a consonant cluster (including '''x''', but not '''hw''' or '''qu''' or a single palatalized consonant), then this syllable is stressed.
+
** If the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable is either a long vowel, a diphthong, or ends with a consonant cluster (including '''x'''), then this syllable is stressed.
  
 
===[[Sindarin]]===
 
===[[Sindarin]]===
Line 370: Line 499:
 
| '''Â, â''' || {{IPA|[aːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
| '''Â, â''' || {{IPA|[aːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ae, ae''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''Ae, ae''' || {{IPA|[a͡ɛ]}} || Diphthong.  This is similar in sound to '''ai''', but is distinguished by ending with a more open vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ai, ai''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''Ai, ai''' || {{IPA|[a͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Au, au, Aw, aw''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''Au, au, Aw, aw''' || {{IPA|[a͡ʊ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''B, b''' || {{IPA|[b]}}
 
| '''B, b''' || {{IPA|[b]}}
Line 380: Line 509:
 
| '''C, c''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
 
| '''C, c''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ch, ch''' || {{IPA|[x]}}
+
| '''Ch, ch''' || {{IPA|[x~h]}} || {{IPA|[x]}} is traditional.  [[Gondor]] pronounces this {{IPA|[h]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''D, d''' || {{IPA|[d]}}
 
| '''D, d''' || {{IPA|[d]}}
Line 386: Line 515:
 
| '''Dh, dh''' || {{IPA|[ð]}} || In some circumstances, '''dh''' is actually the consonant cluster '''d-h''', pronounced as two separate letters.
 
| '''Dh, dh''' || {{IPA|[ð]}} || In some circumstances, '''dh''' is actually the consonant cluster '''d-h''', pronounced as two separate letters.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[e]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[ɛ]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[ɛː]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ê, ê''' || {{IPA|[eːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
+
| '''Ê, ê''' || {{IPA|[ɛːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ei, ei''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''Ei, ei''' || {{IPA|[ɛ͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[f, v]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[f]}} normally, but is {{IPA|[v]}} before '''n''' and at the ends of words.
 
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[f, v]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[f]}} normally, but is {{IPA|[v]}} before '''n''' and at the ends of words.
Line 400: Line 529:
 
| '''H, h''' || {{IPA|[h]}}
 
| '''H, h''' || {{IPA|[h]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''I, i''' || {{IPA|[i, j]}} || Short vowel.  Pronounced {{IPA|[j]}} when unstressed neighboring another vowel (where practical—in names like [[Galadriel]] it might not be).  Pronounced {{IPA|[i]}} elsewhere.
+
| '''Hw, hw''' || {{IPA|[ʍ]}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''I, i''' || {{IPA|[i, j]}} || Short vowel.  Pronounced {{IPA|[j]}} when unstressed neighboring another vowel (where practical—in names like ''[[Galadriel]]'' it might not be).  Pronounced {{IPA|[i]}} elsewhere.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''Í, í''' || {{IPA|[iː]}} || Long vowel.
 
| '''Í, í''' || {{IPA|[iː]}} || Long vowel.
Line 422: Line 553:
 
| '''nc''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}}
 
| '''nc''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ng, ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋɡ, ŋ]}} || Normally pronounced {{IPA|[ŋɡ]}}, but is {{IPA|[ŋ]}} at the end of a word.
+
| '''Ng, ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋɡ, ŋ]}} || Normally pronounced {{IPA|[ŋ]}}, but is {{IPA|[ŋɡ]}} between two vowels.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[nː]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[nː]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[o]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[ɔ]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[ɔː]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ô, ô''' || {{IPA|[oːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
+
| '''Ô, ô''' || {{IPA|[ɔːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Oe, oe''' || {{IPA|[oe, ø~e]}} || Confusingly, this represents two sounds in [[First Age]] Sindarin.  {{IPA|[oe]}} is a diphthong, and {{IPA|[ø]}} is a single vowel.  The latter later becomes pronounced and written like '''e'''.  Perhaps the most famous word known to be spelled with '''oe''' as {{IPA|[ø]}} is "[[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]]".
+
| '''Oe, oe''' || {{IPA|[ɔ͡ɛ, ø~ɛ]}} || Confusingly, this represents two sounds in [[First Age]] Sindarin.  {{IPA|[oe]}} is a diphthong, and {{IPA|[ø]}} is a single vowel.  The latter later becomes pronounced and written like '''e'''.  Perhaps the most famous word known to be spelled with '''oe''' as {{IPA|[ø]}} is ''[[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]]''.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
 
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ph, ph''' || {{IPA|[fː, f]}} || Normally pronounced {{IPA|[fː]}}, but is {{IPA|[f]}} at the end of a word.
+
| '''Ph, ph''' || {{IPA|[fː, f]}} || Normally pronounced {{IPA|[fː]}}, but is {{IPA|[f]}} at the end of a word.  In some circumstances, ''ph'' is actually the consonant cluster ''p-h'', pronounced as two separate letters.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
 
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
Line 458: Line 589:
 
| '''Û, û''' || {{IPA|[uːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
| '''Û, û''' || {{IPA|[uːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ui, ui''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''Ui, ui''' || {{IPA|[u͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''V, v''' || {{IPA|[v]}}
 
| '''V, v''' || {{IPA|[v]}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''W, w''' || {{IPA|[w]}}
 
| '''W, w''' || {{IPA|[w]}}
|-
 
| '''Wh, wh''' || {{IPA|[ʍ]}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''Y, y''' || {{IPA|[y~i]}} || Short vowel.  The traditional pronunciation is {{IPA|[y]}}.  By the [[Third Age]], all varieties of {{IPA|[y]}} become pronounced {{IPA|[i]}} instead.
 
| '''Y, y''' || {{IPA|[y~i]}} || Short vowel.  The traditional pronunciation is {{IPA|[y]}}.  By the [[Third Age]], all varieties of {{IPA|[y]}} become pronounced {{IPA|[i]}} instead.

Latest revision as of 15:28, 18 January 2017

These are charts for pronouncing some of the principal languages of Arda using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Many of these IPA articulations are not going to be 100% exact (there are no laboratory recordings of the speech of real-life Eldar, considering they are fictional), but they are phonemic.

Contents

[edit] Charts

[edit] Adûnaic

Spelling IPA Notes
A, a [a] Short vowel.
Â, â [aː] Long vowel.
B, b [b]
bb [bː] Geminate consonant.
D, d [d]
dd [dː] Geminate consonant.
Ê, ê [eː] ê is how ai are pronounced together. There is (properly) no short e. The name Zimraphel may be an exception, though it may also actually be Zimraphêl.
G, g [ɡ]
gg [ɡː] Geminate consonant.
H, h [h]
I, i [i] Short vowel.
Î, î [iː] Long vowel.
K, k [k]
Kh, kh [x]
kk [kː] Geminate consonant.
kkh [kx] Geminate consonant of kh.
L, l [l]
ll [lː] Geminate consonant.
M, m [m]
mm [mː] Geminate consonant.
N, n [n]
nn [nː] Geminate consonant.
Ô, ô [oː] ô is how au are pronounced together. There is no short o.
P, p [p]
Ph, ph [f]
pp [pː] Geminate consonant.
pph [pf] Geminate consonant of ph.
R, r [r]
rr [rː] Geminate consonant.
S, s [s]
Sh, sh [ʃ]
ss [sː] Geminate consonant.
T, t [t]
Th, th [θ]
tt [tː] Geminate consonant.
tth [tθ] Geminate consonant of th.
U, u [u] Short vowel.
Û, û [uː] Long vowel.
V, v [v]
W, w [w]
Y, y [j]
Z, z [z]

[edit] Khuzdul

Note that there is no p or ph in Khuzdul.

Spelling IPA Notes
A, a [a] Short vowel.
Â, â [aː] Long vowel.
B, b [b]
D, d [d]
dd [dː] Geminate consonant.
E, e [e] Short vowel.
Ê, ê [eː] Long vowel.
F, f [f]
G, g [ɡ]
gg [ɡː] Geminate consonant.
Gh, gh [ɣ]
H, h [h]
I, i [i] Short vowel.
Î, î [iː] Long vowel.
K, k [k]
Kh, kh [kʰ]
kk [kː] Geminate consonant.
kkh [kʰː] Geminate consonant.
L, l [l]
ll [lː] Geminate consonant.
M, m [m]
mm [mː] Geminate consonant.
N, n [n]
nn [nː] Geminate consonant.
O, o [o] Short vowel.
Ô, ô [oː] Long vowel.
R, r [r]
rr [rː] Geminate consonant.
S, s [s]
Sh, sh [ʃ]
ss [sː] Geminate consonant.
T, t [t]
Th, th [tʰ]
tt [tː] Geminate consonant.
tth [tʰː] Geminate consonant.
U, u [u] Short vowel.
Û, û [uː] Long vowel.
Y, y [j]
Z, z [z]

[edit] Quenya

Spelling IPA Notes
Short Vowels
A, a, ä [a]
E, e, ë [ɛ]
I, i [i]
O, o, ö [ɔ]
U, u [u]
Long Vowels
Á, á [aː]
É, é [eː]
Í, í [iː]
Ó, ó [oː]
Ú, ú [uː]
Diphthongs
Ai, ai [a͡ɪ]
Au, au [a͡ʊ]
Eu, eu [ɛ͡ʊ]
Iu, iu [ɪ͡ʊ] Middle-earth in the Third Age pronounces this [juː].
Oi, oi [ɔ͡ɪ]
Ui, ui [ʊ͡ɪ]
Initial Consonants
C, c, K, k [k]
F, f [ɸ~f] The Vanyar pronounce this [ɸ]. The Ñoldor and Middle-earth pronounce this [f].
Ȝ, ȝ [ɣ] Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of Rúmil's sarati.
H, h [x~h] The Vanyar pronounce this [x]. The Ñoldor and Middle-earth pronounce this [h].
Hl, hl [ɬ~l] Traditionally [ɬ]. By the Third Age in Middle-earth, it is pronounced [l]. This phoneme cannot occur medially, where ll is used instead.
Hr, hr [r̥] This phoneme cannot occur medially, where rr is used instead.
Hw, hw [ʍ]
Hy, hy [ç~ʃ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [ç]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [ʃ].
L, l [l]
M, m [m]
N, n [n]
Ñ, ñ, Ng, ng [ŋ] This phoneme cannot occur medially, where medial ng is used instead.
Nw, nw [nˠʷ] Initial ñw becomes nw in Middle-earth in the Third Age. They are not separate phonemes when initial.
Ñw, ñw, Ngw, ngw [ŋʷ] This phoneme cannot occur medially, where medial ngw is used instead.
Ny, ny [ɲ~nʲ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [ɲ]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [nʲ].
P, p [p]
Qu, qu [kʷ]
R, r [r]
S, s [s]
T, t [t]
Ty, ty [c~ʧ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [c]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [ʧ].
V, v [β~v] The Vanyar pronounce this [β]. The Ñoldor and Middle-earth pronounce this [v].
W, w [w] As an initial consonant, this mostly merges with v outside Aman in the Second Age.
Y, y [j]
Þ, þ, Th, th [θ] The Vanyar retain this phoneme, but most (though not all) of the Ñoldor replace it with s, which becomes the more common pronunciation outside Aman.
Medial Single Consonants
c, k [k]
d As a medial single consonant, this poorly-understood phoneme is only known to occur in the Vanyarin word Aldudénië.
f [ɸ~f] The Vanyar pronounce this [ɸ]. The Ñoldor and Middle-earth pronounce this [f].
ȝ [ɣ] Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of Rúmil's sarati.
h [x~h] The Vanyar and the Ñoldor pronounce this [x]. Middle-earth in the Third Age pronounces this [h] in all locations.
l [l]
m [m]
n [n]
p [p]
r [r]
s [s] The Vanyar do not use this single consonant medially, where either z or þ are used instead.
t [t]
v [β~v] The Vanyar pronounce this [β]. The Ñoldor and Middle-earth pronounce this [v].
w [w] As a single medial consonant, this mostly merges with v outside Aman in the Second Age.
y [j]
þ, th [θ] The Vanyar retain this phoneme, but most (though not all) of the Ñoldor replace it with s, which becomes the more common pronunciation outside Aman.
z [z] Only the Vanyar retain this phoneme. Among the Ñoldor it becomes r, and they pronounce z as s when reading Vanyarin texts.
Medial Consonant Clusters
cc, kk [kʰː]
ff [ɸː~fː] The Vanyar pronounce this [ɸː]. The Ñoldor and Middle-earth pronounce this [fː].
ht [xt, çt~ʃt] Pronounced [xt] after one of a o u, but [çt~ʃt] after one of e i. For the latter, [çt] is traditional among the Ñoldor, but the Vanyar and Gondor pronounce it [ʃt].
hty [çc~ʃʧ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [çc]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [ʃʧ], merging with hty.
hw [ʍː]
hy [çː~ʃː] The Ñoldor pronounce this [çː]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [ʃː], which merges with sy.
lb [lb]
lc, lk [lk]
ld [ld]
lh [lx~lh] The Vanyar and the Ñoldor pronounce this [lx]. Middle-earth in the Third Age pronounces this [lh] in all locations.
lhy [ʎç~lʃ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [ʎç]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [lʃ].
ll [lː]
lm [lm]
lp [lp]
lqu [lkʷ]
lt [lt]
lty [ʎc~lʧ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [ʎc]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [lʧ].
lv [lv~lβ] The Vanyar pronounce this [lβ]. The Ñoldor pronounce this [lv], if they don't prefer lb instead.
lw [lw]
ly [ʎj~lj]
mb [mb]
mm [mː]
mn [mn]
mp [mp]
my [mj]
nc, nk [ŋk]
nd [nd]
ndy [ɲɟ~nʤ] The Vanyar pronounce this [nʤ]. Among Ñoldor and Gondor this has merged with ny.
ng [ŋɡ]
ngw [ŋʷɡʷ]
nn [nː]
nqu [ŋʷkʷ]
nt [nt]
nty [ɲc~nʧ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [ɲc]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [nʧ].
nw [nw]
ny [ɲj~nj] The Ñoldor pronounce this [ɲj]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [nj].
pp [pː]
ps [ps]
pt [pt]
py [pç~pʃ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [pç]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [pʃ].
qu [kʷʍ]
rc, rk [rk]
rd [rd]
rh [rx~rh] The Vanyar and the Ñoldor pronounce this [rx]. Middle-earth in the Third Age pronounces this [rh] in all locations.
rhw [rʍ]
rm [rm]
rn [rn]
rp [rp]
rqu [rkʷ]
rr [rː]
rs [rs] Not normally known to exist in Quenya. Occurs in Narsil, which is a contraction of Anar-Isil.
rt [rt]
rv [rv~rβ] The Ñoldor pronounce this [rv]. The Vanyar pronounce this [rβ].
rw [rw]
ry [rj]
sc, sk [sk]
sp [sp]
squ [skʷ]
ss [sː]
st [st]
sty [ɕc] Among the Ñoldor, this is distinct from hty. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [ʃʧ], merging with hty.
sw [sʍ] This phoneme is not believed to occur among the Vanyar, who use zw or þw instead.
sy [ɕç] Among the Ñoldor, this is distinct from hy. Gondor pronounces this ʃː, which merges with hy. This phoneme is not believed to occur among the Vanyar, who use zy or þy instead.
ts [ts]
tt [tʰː]
tw [tʍ]
ty [cʰː~ʧʰː] The Ñoldor pronounce this [cʰː]. The Vanyar and Gondor pronounce this [ʧʰː].
vy [vj~βj] The Ñoldor pronounce this [vj]. The Vanyar pronounce this [βj].
x [ks]
zw [zw] Only the Vanyar retain this phoneme. Among the Ñoldor it becomes rw, and they pronounce zw as sw when reading Vanyarin texts.
zy Only the Vanyar retain this phoneme, but their pronunciation of it is not entirely certain. Among the Ñoldor it becomes ry, and they pronounce zy as sy when reading Vanyarin texts.
þw, thw [θʍ]
þy, thy [θç~θʃ] The Ñoldor (at least those Ñoldor who retain þ) pronounce this [θç]. The Vanyar pronounce this [θʃ].
þþ, thth [θː]
Final Consonants
l [l]
n [n]
nt [nt] The only known consonant cluster that may occur at the end of a word.
r [r]
s [s]
t [t]

[edit] additional notes

  • Syllable stress is not phonemic in Quenya, but the language does have a well-defined syllable stress which is fairly predictable.
    • In words with two syllables, the first syllable is stressed.
    • In words with three or more syllables, the antepenultimate (third-to-last) syllable is usually stressed. However:
    • If the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable is either a long vowel, a diphthong, or ends with a consonant cluster (including x), then this syllable is stressed.

[edit] Sindarin

Spelling IPA Notes
A, a, ä [a] Short vowel.
Á, á [aː] Long vowel.
Â, â [aːː] Extra-long vowel.
Ae, ae [a͡ɛ] Diphthong. This is similar in sound to ai, but is distinguished by ending with a more open vowel.
Ai, ai [a͡ɪ] Diphthong.
Au, au, Aw, aw [a͡ʊ] Diphthong.
B, b [b]
C, c [k]
Ch, ch [x~h] [x] is traditional. Gondor pronounces this [h].
D, d [d]
Dh, dh [ð] In some circumstances, dh is actually the consonant cluster d-h, pronounced as two separate letters.
E, e, ë [ɛ] Short vowel.
É, é [ɛː] Long vowel.
Ê, ê [ɛːː] Extra-long vowel.
Ei, ei [ɛ͡ɪ] Diphthong.
F, f [f, v] Pronounced [f] normally, but is [v] before n and at the ends of words.
G, g [ɡ]
H, h [h]
Hw, hw [ʍ]
I, i [i, j] Short vowel. Pronounced [j] when unstressed neighboring another vowel (where practical—in names like Galadriel it might not be). Pronounced [i] elsewhere.
Í, í [iː] Long vowel.
Î, î [iːː] Extra-long vowel.
L, l [l]
Lh, lh [ɬ] In some circumstances, lh is actually the consonant cluster l-h, pronounced as two separate letters.
ll [lː] Geminate consonant.
M, m [m]
Mh, mh [ṽ] An older Sindarin consonant that soon becomes v. Also, in some circumstances, mh is actually the consonant cluster m-h, pronounced as two separate letters.
mm [mː] Geminate consonant.
N, n [n]
nc [ŋk]
Ng, ng [ŋɡ, ŋ] Normally pronounced [ŋ], but is [ŋɡ] between two vowels.
nn [nː] Geminate consonant.
O, o, ö [ɔ] Short vowel.
Ó, ó [ɔː] Long vowel.
Ô, ô [ɔːː] Extra-long vowel.
Oe, oe [ɔ͡ɛ, ø~ɛ] Confusingly, this represents two sounds in First Age Sindarin. [oe] is a diphthong, and [ø] is a single vowel. The latter later becomes pronounced and written like e. Perhaps the most famous word known to be spelled with oe as [ø] is Nirnaeth Arnoediad.
P, p [p]
Ph, ph [fː, f] Normally pronounced [fː], but is [f] at the end of a word. In some circumstances, ph is actually the consonant cluster p-h, pronounced as two separate letters.
R, r [r]
Rh, rh [r̥] In some circumstances, rh is actually the consonant cluster r-h, pronounced as two separate letters.
rr [rː] Geminate consonant.
S, s [s]
ss [sː] Geminate consonant.
T, t [t]
Th, th [θ]
U, u [u] Short vowel.
Ú, ú [uː] Long vowel.
Û, û [uːː] Extra-long vowel.
Ui, ui [u͡ɪ] Diphthong.
V, v [v]
W, w [w]
Y, y [y~i] Short vowel. The traditional pronunciation is [y]. By the Third Age, all varieties of [y] become pronounced [i] instead.
Ý, ý [yː~iː] Long vowel.
Ŷ, ŷ [yːː~iːː] Extra-long vowel.

[edit] additional notes

  • Sindarin has a very predictable syllable stress pattern, which is virtually identical to Quenya's.

[edit] References