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These are charts for pronouncing some of the principal [[languages]] of [[Arda]] using the [[Wikipedia:International Phonetic Alphabet|International Phonetic Alphabet]].  Many of these IPA articulations are not going to be 100% ''exact'' (there are no laboratory recordings of the speech of real-life [[Eldar]], considering they are fictional), but they are phonemic.
+
These are charts for pronouncing some of the principal [[languages]] of [[Arda]] using the [[Wikipedia:International Phonetic Alphabet|International Phonetic Alphabet]].  Many of these IPA articulations are going to be 100% ''exact'' (there are no laboratory recordings of the speech of real-life [[Eldar]], considering they are fictional), but they are phonemic.
  
 
==Charts==
 
==Charts==
Line 189: Line 189:
 
!Notes
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="3"| Short Vowels
+
| '''A, a, ä''' || {{IPA|[a]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''A, a, ä''' || {{IPA|[a]}}
+
| '''Á, á''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[ɛ]}}
+
| '''Ai, ai''' || {{IPA|[a͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''I, i''' || {{IPA|[i]}}
+
| '''Au, au''' || {{IPA|[a͡ʊ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[ɔ]}}
+
| '''b''' || {{IPA|[b]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''U, u''' || {{IPA|[u]}}
+
| '''C, c''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="3"| Long Vowels
+
| '''cc''' || {{IPA|[kː]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Á, á''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''d''' || {{IPA|[d]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[e]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Í, í''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''Eu, eu''' || {{IPA|[e͡ʊ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ú, ú''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[ɸ~f]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸ]}}.  The [[Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[f]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="3"| Diphthongs
+
| '''Ȝ, ȝ''' || {{IPA|[ɣ]}} || Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of [[Rúmil (Elf of Tirion)|Rúmil]]'s [[sarati]].
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ai, ai''' || {{IPA|[a͡ɪ]}}
+
| '''H, h''' || {{IPA|[x~h]}} || There are two pronunciations of this—{{IPA|[x]}} and {{IPA|[h]}}—but they are actually allophones of the same phoneme.  The [[Vanyar]] use {{IPA|[x]}} in all places.  The [[Ñoldor]] also use {{IPA|[x]}} for '''h''', but pronounce it {{IPA|[h]}} at the beginnings of words.  By the [[Third Age]] in [[Middle-earth]], '''h''' is {{IPA|[h]}} in every position before a vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Au, au''' || {{IPA|[a͡ʊ]}}
+
| '''Hl, hl''' || {{IPA|[ɬ~l]}} || Traditionally {{IPA|[ɬ]}}.  By the [[Third Age]] in [[Middle-earth]], it is pronounced {{IPA|[l]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Eu, eu''' || {{IPA|[ɛ͡ʊ]}}
+
| '''Hr, hr''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Iu, iu''' || {{IPA|[ɪ͡ʊ]}} || [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[juː]}}.
+
| '''ht''' || {{IPA|[xt, çt~ʃt]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[xt]}} after one of '''a o u''', but {{IPA|[çt~ʃt]}} after one of '''e i'''.  For the latter, {{IPA|[çt]}} is traditional, but [[Gondor]] pronounces it {{IPA|[ʃt]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Oi, oi''' || {{IPA|[ɔ͡ɪ]}}
+
| '''Hw, hw''' || {{IPA|[ʍ]}} || Labiovelar consonant, not a cluster.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ui, ui''' || {{IPA|[ʊ͡ɪ]}}
+
| '''I, i''' || {{IPA|[i]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="3"| Initial Consonants
+
| '''Í, í''' || {{IPA|[iː]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''C, c, K, k''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
+
| '''Iu, iu''' || {{IPA|[i͡ʊ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[ɸ~f]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸ]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[f]}}.
+
| '''K, k''' || {{IPA|[k]}} || Alternate spelling of '''c'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ȝ, ȝ''' || {{IPA|[ɣ]}} || Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of [[Rúmil (elf of Tirion)|Rúmil]]'s [[sarati]].
+
| '''kk''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Alternate spelling of '''cc'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''H, h''' || {{IPA|[x~h]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[x]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[h]}}.
+
| '''L, l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Hl, hl''' || {{IPA|[ɬ~l]}} || Traditionally {{IPA|[ɬ]}}.  By the [[Third Age]] in [[Middle-earth]], it is pronounced {{IPA|[l]}}.  This phoneme cannot occur medially, where '''ll''' is used instead.
+
| '''ll''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Hr, hr''' || {{IPA|[]}} || This phoneme cannot occur medially, where '''rr''' is used instead.
+
| '''M, m''' || {{IPA|[m]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Hw, hw''' || {{IPA|[ʍ]}}
+
| '''mm''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
|-
+
| '''Hy, hy''' || {{IPA|[ç~ʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ç]}}. The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃ]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''L, l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
+
|-
+
| '''M, m''' || {{IPA|[m]}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''N, n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
 
| '''N, n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ñ, ñ, Ng, ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋ]}} || This phoneme cannot occur medially, where medial '''ng''' is used instead.
+
| '''Ñ, ñ''' || {{IPA|[ŋ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Nw, nw''' || {{IPA|[nˠʷ]}} || Initial '''ñw''' becomes '''nw''' in [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]].  They are not separate phonemes when initial.
+
| '''nc''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ñw, ñw, Ngw, ngw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷ]}} || This phoneme cannot occur medially, where medial '''ngw''' is used instead.
+
| '''Ng, ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋɡ, ŋ]}} || Normally {{IPA|[ŋɡ]}}.  If this occurs at the beginning of a word, it is an alternate spelling of '''ñ''' and is pronounced {{IPA|[ŋ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ny, ny''' || {{IPA|[ɲ~nʲ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɲ]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[]}}.
+
| '''Ngw, ngw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷɡʷ, ŋʷ]}} || Normally {{IPA|[ŋʷɡʷ]}}.  If this occurs at the beginning of a word, it is an alternate spelling of '''ñw''' and is pronounced {{IPA|[ŋʷ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
+
| '''nk''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}} || Alternate spelling of '''nc'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Qu, qu''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
|-
+
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
+
|-
+
| '''S, s''' || {{IPA|[s]}}
+
|-
+
| '''T, t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
+
|-
+
| '''Ty, ty''' || {{IPA|[c~ʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[c]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʧ]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''V, v''' || {{IPA|[β~v]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[β]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[v]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''W, w''' || {{IPA|[w]}} || As an initial consonant, this mostly merges with '''v''' outside [[Aman]] in the [[Second Age]].
+
|-
+
| '''Y, y''' || {{IPA|[j]}}
+
|-
+
| '''Þ, þ, Th, th''' || {{IPA|[θ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme, but most (though not all) of the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] replace it with '''s''', which becomes the more common pronunciation outside [[Aman]].
+
|-
+
!colspan="3"| Medial Single Consonants
+
|-
+
| '''c, k''' || {{IPA|[k]}}
+
|-
+
| '''d''' ||  || As a medial single consonant, this poorly-understood phoneme is only known to occur in the [[Vanyar]]in word ''[[Aldudénië]]''.
+
|-
+
| '''f''' || {{IPA|[ɸ~f]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸ]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[f]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''ȝ''' || {{IPA|[ɣ]}} || Extinct phoneme which still existed in the written Quenya of [[Rúmil (elf of Tirion)|Rúmil]]'s [[sarati]].
+
|-
+
| '''h''' || {{IPA|[x~h]}} || The [[Vanyar]] and the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[x]}}.  [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[h]}} in all locations.
+
|-
+
| '''l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
+
|-
+
| '''m''' || {{IPA|[m]}}
+
|-
+
| '''n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
+
|-
+
| '''p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
+
|-
+
| '''r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
+
|-
+
| '''s''' || {{IPA|[s]}} || The [[Vanyar]] do not use this single consonant medially, where either '''z''' or '''þ''' are used instead.
+
|-
+
| '''t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
+
|-
+
| '''v''' || {{IPA|[β~v]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[β]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[v]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''w''' || {{IPA|[w]}} || As a single medial consonant, this mostly merges with '''v''' outside [[Aman]] in the [[Second Age]].
+
|-
+
| '''y''' || {{IPA|[j]}}
+
|-
+
| '''þ, th''' || {{IPA|[θ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme, but most (though not all) of the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] replace it with '''s''', which becomes the more common pronunciation outside [[Aman]].
+
|-
+
| '''z''' || {{IPA|[z]}} || Only the [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme.  Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] it becomes '''r''', and they pronounce '''z''' as '''s''' when reading Vanyarin texts.
+
|-
+
!colspan="3"| Medial Consonant Clusters
+
|-
+
| '''cc, kk''' || {{IPA|[kʰː]}}
+
|-
+
| '''ff''' || {{IPA|[ɸː~fː]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɸː]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[fː]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''ht''' || {{IPA|[xt, çt~ʃt]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[xt]}} after one of '''a o u''', but {{IPA|[çt~ʃt]}} after one of '''e i'''.  For the latter, {{IPA|[çt]}} is traditional among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]], but the [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce it {{IPA|[ʃt]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''hty''' || {{IPA|[çc~ʃʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[çc]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃʧ]}}, merging with '''hty'''.
+
|-
+
| '''hw''' || {{IPA|[ʍː]}}
+
|-
+
| '''hy''' || {{IPA|[çː~ʃː]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[çː]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃː]}}, which merges with '''sy'''.
+
|-
+
| '''lb''' || {{IPA|[lb]}}
+
|-
+
| '''lc, lk''' || {{IPA|[lk]}}
+
|-
+
| '''ld''' || {{IPA|[ld]}}
+
|-
+
| '''lh''' || {{IPA|[lx~lh]}} || The [[Vanyar]] and the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lx]}}.  [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[lh]}} in all locations.
+
|-
+
| '''lhy''' || {{IPA|[ʎç~lʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʎç]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lʃ]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''ll''' || {{IPA|[lː]}}
+
|-
+
| '''lm''' || {{IPA|[lm]}}
+
|-
+
| '''lp''' || {{IPA|[lp]}}
+
|-
+
| '''lqu''' || {{IPA|[lkʷ]}}
+
|-
+
| '''lt''' || {{IPA|[lt]}}
+
|-
+
| '''lty''' || {{IPA|[ʎc~lʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʎc]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lʧ]}}.
+
|-
+
| '''lv''' || {{IPA|[lv~lβ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lβ]}}.  The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[lv]}}, if they don't prefer '''lb''' instead.
+
|-
+
| '''lw''' || {{IPA|[lw]}}
+
|-
+
| '''ly''' || {{IPA|[ʎj~lj]}}
+
|-
+
| '''mb''' || {{IPA|[mb]}}
+
|-
+
| '''mm''' || {{IPA|[mː]}}
+
|-
+
| '''mn''' || {{IPA|[mn]}}
+
|-
+
| '''mp''' || {{IPA|[mp]}}
+
|-
+
| '''my''' || {{IPA|[mj]}}
+
|-
+
| '''nc, nk''' || {{IPA|[ŋk]}}
+
|-
+
| '''nd''' || {{IPA|[nd]}}
+
|-
+
| '''ndy''' || {{IPA|[ɲɟ~nʤ]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[nʤ]}}.  Among [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] and [[Gondor]] this has merged with '''ny'''.
+
|-
+
| '''ng''' || {{IPA|[ŋɡ]}}
+
|-
+
| '''ngw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷɡʷ]}}
+
|-
+
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[nː]}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''nqu''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷkʷ]}}
 
| '''nqu''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷkʷ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nt''' || {{IPA|[nt]}}
+
| '''Nw, nw''' || {{IPA|[nˠʷ, nw]}} || This is {{IPA|[nˠʷ]}} at the beginnings of words, and {{IPA|[nw]}} elsewhere.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nty''' || {{IPA|[ɲc~nʧ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɲc]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[nʧ]}}.
+
| '''Ñw, ñw''' || {{IPA|[ŋʷ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nw''' || {{IPA|[nw]}}
+
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[o]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ny''' || {{IPA|[ɲj~nj]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ɲj]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[nj]}}.
+
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''pp''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''Oi, oi''' || {{IPA|[o͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ps''' || {{IPA|[ps]}}
+
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''pt''' || {{IPA|[pt]}}
+
| '''pp''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''py''' || {{IPA|[pç~pʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[pç]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[pʃ]}}.
+
| '''Qu, qu''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Labiovelar consonant, not a cluster.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''qu''' || {{IPA|[kʷʍ]}}
+
| '''R, r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rc, rk''' || {{IPA|[rk]}}
+
| '''rr''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rd''' || {{IPA|[rd]}}
+
| '''S, s''' || {{IPA|[s]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rh''' || {{IPA|[rx~rh]}} || The [[Vanyar]] and the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[rx]}}.  [[Middle-earth]] in the [[Third Age]] pronounces this {{IPA|[rh]}} in all locations.
+
| '''ss''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rhw''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''T, t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rm''' || {{IPA|[rm]}}
+
| '''Th, th''' || {{IPA|[θ]}} || Alternate spelling of '''þ'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rn''' || {{IPA|[rn]}}
+
| '''tt''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rp''' || {{IPA|[rp]}}
+
| '''U, u''' || {{IPA|[u]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rqu''' || {{IPA|[rkʷ]}}
+
| '''Ú, ú''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rr''' || {{IPA|[]}}
+
| '''Ui, ui''' || {{IPA|[u͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rs''' || {{IPA|[rs]}} || Not normally known to exist in Quenya.  Occurs in ''[[Narsil]]'', which is a contraction of ''[[Sun|Anar]]-[[Moon#Other names|Isil]]''.
+
| '''V, v''' || {{IPA|[β~v]}} || The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[β]}}.  The [[Ñoldor]] and [[Middle-earth]] pronounce this {{IPA|[v]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rt''' || {{IPA|[rt]}}
+
| '''W, w''' || {{IPA|[w]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rv''' || {{IPA|[rv~rβ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[rv]}}The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[rβ]}}.
+
| '''x''' || {{IPA|[ks]}} || This is actually shorthand for '''cs''' or '''ks'''It is a consonant cluster.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''rw''' || {{IPA|[rw]}}
+
| '''Y, y''' || {{IPA|[j, ʲ]}} || As a consonant in its own right, '''y''' is {{IPA|[j]}}.  But immediately after another consonant, '''y''' is not a consonant of its own, and palatalizes the preceding consonant or consonant cluster—see the relevant entries in this chart.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ry''' || {{IPA|[rj]}}
+
| '''z''' || {{IPA|[z]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''sc, sk''' || {{IPA|[sk]}}
+
| '''Þ, þ''' || {{IPA|[θ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''sp''' || {{IPA|[sp]}}
+
| '''þþ''' || {{IPA|[θː]}} || Geminate consonant.
 +
|}
 +
====palatalized consonants====
 +
When a consonant or consonant cluster is followed by '''y''', then the '''y''' is not a consonant in its own right and the consonant or cluster preceding it is instead palatalized.
 +
*Not all palatalized consonants are attested in official sources, but many are possible in original texts because of Quenya grammar.  When a consonant cluster is palatalized, every consonant in the cluster is palatalized.
 +
*Note the absence of '''cy gy'''—they are forbidden, instead becoming '''ty dy'''.  Likewise, the clusters '''ncy ngy''' become '''nty ndy''' among the [[Vanyar]], or '''nty ny''' among the [[Ñoldor]].
 +
{|class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| '''squ''' || {{IPA|[skʷ]}}
+
!Spelling
|-
+
!IPA
| '''ss''' || {{IPA|[sː]}}
+
!Notes
|-
+
| '''st''' || {{IPA|[st]}}
+
|-
+
| '''sty''' || {{IPA|[ɕc]}} || Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]], this is distinct from '''hty'''.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʃʧ]}}, merging with '''hty'''.
+
|-
+
| '''sw''' || {{IPA|[sʍ]}} || This phoneme is not believed to occur among the [[Vanyar]], who use '''zw''' or '''þw''' instead.
+
|-
+
| '''sy''' || {{IPA|[ɕç]}} || Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]], this is distinct from '''hy'''.  [[Gondor]] pronounces this [[ʃː]], which merges with '''hy'''.  This phoneme is not believed to occur among the [[Vanyar]], who use '''zy''' or '''þy''' instead.
+
|-
+
| '''ts''' || {{IPA|[ts]}}
+
|-
+
| '''tt''' || {{IPA|[tʰː]}}
+
|-
+
| '''tw''' || {{IPA|[tʍ]}}
+
|-
+
| '''ty''' || {{IPA|[cʰː~ʧʰː]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[cʰː]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] and [[Gondor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[ʧʰː]}}.
+
 
|-
 
|-
| '''vy''' || {{IPA|[vj~βj]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] pronounce this {{IPA|[vj]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[βj]}}.
+
| '''by''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''x''' || {{IPA|[ks]}}
+
| '''dy''' || {{IPA|[ɟ~dʒ]}} || '''gy''' becomes this.  {{IPA|[ɟ]}} is traditional.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''zw''' || {{IPA|[zw]}} || Only the [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme.  Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] it becomes '''rw''', and they pronounce '''zw''' as '''sw''' when reading Vanyarin texts.
+
| '''fy''' || {{IPA|[ɸʲ~fʲ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''zy''' || || Only the [[Vanyar]] retain this phoneme, but their pronunciation of it is not entirely certain.  Among the [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] it becomes '''ry''', and they pronounce '''zy''' as '''sy''' when reading Vanyarin texts.
+
| '''Hy, hy''' || {{IPA|[ç~ʃ]}} || [[Gondor]] pronounces this {{IPA|[ʃ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''þw, thw''' || {{IPA|[θʍ]}}
+
| '''ky''' || || An extremely anomalous example found only in a single morpheme, ''[[kyermë]]'', attested only in [[Númenor]] where Quenya is ceremonial and not spoken as an everyday language.  Considering the noted errors encountered in Númenórean Quenya (''[[Elendil]]'' was intended to mean "elf-friend" but actually means "star-friend") and the suspicion that this particular ''ky'' is actually a mistaken ''hy'', it is highly unlikely that ''ky'' exists in polished Quenya.  A substitution of ''ty'' is recommended for ''k+y'' synthesis.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''þy, thy''' || {{IPA|[θç~θʃ]}} || The [[Noldor|Ñoldor]] (at least those Ñoldor who retain '''þ''') pronounce this {{IPA|[θç]}}.  The [[Vanyar]] pronounce this {{IPA|[θʃ]}}.
+
| '''ly''' || {{IPA|[ʎ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''þþ, thth''' || {{IPA|[θː]}}
+
| '''my''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="3"| Final Consonants
+
| '''Ny, ny''' || {{IPA|[ɲ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''l''' || {{IPA|[l]}}
+
| '''py''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''n''' || {{IPA|[n]}}
+
| '''ry''' || {{IPA|[]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nt''' || {{IPA|[nt]}} || The only known consonant cluster that may occur at the end of a word.
+
| '''sy''' || {{IPA|[ɕ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''r''' || {{IPA|[r]}}
+
| '''Ty, ty''' || {{IPA|[c~tʃ]}} || '''cy''' or '''ky''' become this.  {{IPA|[c]}} is traditional.  [[Gondor]] pronounces this {{IPA|[tʃ]}}.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''s''' || {{IPA|[s]}}
+
| '''vy''' || {{IPA|[βʲ~vʲ]}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''t''' || {{IPA|[t]}}
+
| '''zy''' || {{IPA|[ʑ]}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 484: Line 352:
 
** In words with two syllables, the first syllable is stressed.
 
** In words with two syllables, the first syllable is stressed.
 
** In words with three or more syllables, the antepenultimate (third-to-last) syllable is ''usually'' stressed.  However:
 
** In words with three or more syllables, the antepenultimate (third-to-last) syllable is ''usually'' stressed.  However:
** If the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable is either a long vowel, a diphthong, or ends with a consonant cluster (including '''x'''), then this syllable is stressed.
+
** If the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable is either a long vowel, a diphthong, or ends with a consonant cluster (including '''x''', but not '''hw''' or '''qu''' or a single palatalized consonant), then this syllable is stressed.
  
 
===[[Sindarin]]===
 
===[[Sindarin]]===
Line 515: Line 383:
 
| '''Dh, dh''' || {{IPA|[ð]}} || In some circumstances, '''dh''' is actually the consonant cluster '''d-h''', pronounced as two separate letters.
 
| '''Dh, dh''' || {{IPA|[ð]}} || In some circumstances, '''dh''' is actually the consonant cluster '''d-h''', pronounced as two separate letters.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[ɛ]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''E, e, ë''' || {{IPA|[e]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[ɛː]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''É, é''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ê, ê''' || {{IPA|[ɛːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
+
| '''Ê, ê''' || {{IPA|[eːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ei, ei''' || {{IPA|[ɛ͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
+
| '''Ei, ei''' || {{IPA|[e͡ɪ]}} || Diphthong.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[f, v]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[f]}} normally, but is {{IPA|[v]}} before '''n''' and at the ends of words.
 
| '''F, f''' || {{IPA|[f, v]}} || Pronounced {{IPA|[f]}} normally, but is {{IPA|[v]}} before '''n''' and at the ends of words.
Line 557: Line 425:
 
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[nː]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
| '''nn''' || {{IPA|[nː]}} || Geminate consonant.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[ɔ]}} || Short vowel.
+
| '''O, o, ö''' || {{IPA|[o]}} || Short vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[ɔː]}} || Long vowel.
+
| '''Ó, ó''' || {{IPA|[]}} || Long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Ô, ô''' || {{IPA|[ɔːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
+
| '''Ô, ô''' || {{IPA|[oːː]}} || Extra-long vowel.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Oe, oe''' || {{IPA|[ɔ͡ɛ, ø~ɛ]}} || Confusingly, this represents two sounds in [[First Age]] Sindarin.  {{IPA|[oe]}} is a diphthong, and {{IPA|[ø]}} is a single vowel.  The latter later becomes pronounced and written like '''e'''.  Perhaps the most famous word known to be spelled with '''oe''' as {{IPA|[ø]}} is ''[[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]]''.
+
| '''Oe, oe''' || {{IPA|[o͡e, ø~e]}} || Confusingly, this represents two sounds in [[First Age]] Sindarin.  {{IPA|[oe]}} is a diphthong, and {{IPA|[ø]}} is a single vowel.  The latter later becomes pronounced and written like '''e'''.  Perhaps the most famous word known to be spelled with '''oe''' as {{IPA|[ø]}} is ''[[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]]''.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}
 
| '''P, p''' || {{IPA|[p]}}

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