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| name=Christopher Tolkien
 
| name=Christopher Tolkien
 
| born=[[21 November]], [[1924]]
 
| born=[[21 November]], [[1924]]
| died=[[16 January]], [[2020]]
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| died=
 
| education=[[Wikipedia:Trinity College, Oxford|Trinity College]], [[Oxford]]
 
| education=[[Wikipedia:Trinity College, Oxford|Trinity College]], [[Oxford]]
 
| occupation=Author, Professor
 
| occupation=Author, Professor
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| website=[http://www.tolkienestate.com TolkienEstate.com]
 
| website=[http://www.tolkienestate.com TolkienEstate.com]
 
}}
 
}}
'''Christopher John Reuel Tolkien''' ([[21 November]] [[1924]] - [[16 January]] [[2020]]) was the third child and youngest son of [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] and [[Edith Tolkien]]. He was the literary executor of the [[Tolkien Estate]] and edited much of his father's work for posthumous publication.<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.tolkien.co.uk/Non-Fiction/Pages/History-of-Middle-earth.aspx?page=2&sdt=1&sort=pno&objsct=History%20of%20Middle-earth|articlename=History of Middle-earth|dated=|website=[http://www.tolkien.co.uk Tolkien.co.uk]|accessed=18-11-2012}}</ref>
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'''Christopher John Reuel Tolkien''' (born [[21 November]], [[1924]]) is the third child and youngest son of [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] and [[Edith Tolkien]]. He is the literary executor of the [[Tolkien Estate]] and has edited much of his father's work for posthumous publication.<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.tolkien.co.uk/Non-Fiction/Pages/History-of-Middle-earth.aspx?page=2&sdt=1&sort=pno&objsct=History%20of%20Middle-earth|articlename=History of Middle-earth|dated=|website=[http://www.tolkien.co.uk Tolkien.co.uk]|accessed=18-11-2012}}</ref>
  
 
==Early life==
 
==Early life==
Christopher Tolkien was named after his father's friend, [[Christopher Wiseman]] (he also sometimes used his confirmation name, "John" as seen on his initials of maps of [[The Lord of the Rings]], "CJRT").  
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Christopher Tolkien was named after his father's friend, [[Christopher Wiseman]] (he also sometimes uses his confirmation name, "John" as seen on his initials of maps of [[The Lord of the Rings]], "CJRT").  
  
 
Born in [[Leeds]] and raised in [[Oxford]], Christopher went to the Dragon School in Oxford and Oratory School in Caversham, Berkshire. Due to a heart ailment, he was forced to stay at home and work with a private tutor. He enjoyed watching stars with a telescope as well as a passion for railways. As early as age four and five, Christopher was concerned with the consistency of ''[[The Hobbit]]''.
 
Born in [[Leeds]] and raised in [[Oxford]], Christopher went to the Dragon School in Oxford and Oratory School in Caversham, Berkshire. Due to a heart ailment, he was forced to stay at home and work with a private tutor. He enjoyed watching stars with a telescope as well as a passion for railways. As early as age four and five, Christopher was concerned with the consistency of ''[[The Hobbit]]''.
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==Young adulthood==
 
==Young adulthood==
In July of [[1943]] he entered the Royal Air Force and in November of that year he went to South Africa to train as a pilot. His absence did not however slow his contributions to his father's works as his father continually sent him parts of ''The Lord of the Rings'' to go over. In [[1945]] he returned to England and was stationed in Shropshire and later that year he returned to Oxford.  
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In July of [[1943]] he entered the Royal Air Force and in November of that year he went to South Africa to train as a pilot. His absence did not however slow his contributions to his father's works as his father continually sent him parts of ''The Lord of the Rings'' to go over. In [[1945]] he returned to England and was stationed in Shropshire and later that year he returned to Oxford. On October 9th, [[1945]] his father informed him that the [[Inklings]] wished to consider him a permanent member. The task of reading ''The Lord of the Rings'' to the Inklings was passed on to Christopher and it was generally agreed that he was a better reader than his father. In 1954-55 Christopher was delegated the re-drawing of his father's ''Lord of the Rings'' maps for publication.
 
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On October 9th, [[1945]] his father informed him that the [[Inklings]] wished to consider him a permanent member. The task of reading ''The Lord of the Rings'' to the Inklings was passed on to Christopher and it was generally agreed that he was a better reader than his father.
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In 1954-55 Christopher was delegated the re-drawing of his father's ''Lord of the Rings'' maps for publication.
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==Adulthood==
 
==Adulthood==
In [[1946]] Christopher returned to Trinity College to resume his studies and reading English. For a while his tutor was [[C.S. Lewis]]. His thesis was a translation of ''[[The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise]]'' and he received his B.A. in [[1949]]. Christopher also became a lecturer in Old and Middle English as well as Old Icelandic at Oxford. He worked as an editor on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales,'' the ''Pardoner's Tale'', and the ''Nun's Priest's Tale''. From [[1963]] to [[1975]] he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford but resigned when he began to devote his time to his father's literary affairs, and soon afterward moved with his family to southern France.
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In [[1946]] Christopher returned to Trinity College to resume his studies and reading English. For a while his tutor was [[C.S. Lewis]]. His thesis was a translation of ''The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise'' and he received his B.A. in [[1949]]. Christopher also became a lecturer in Old and Middle English as well as Old Icelandic at Oxford. He worked as an editor on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales,'' the ''Pardoner's Tale'', and the ''Nun's Priest's Tale''. From [[1963]] to [[1975]] he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford but resigned when he began to devote his time to his father's literary affairs.
  
 
==After his father's death==
 
==After his father's death==
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[[File:Christopher Tolkien (black and white).jpg|thumb]]
 
After his father's death, Christopher embarked on organizing the masses of his father's notes, some of them written on odd scraps of paper a half-century earlier. Much of the material was handwritten, frequently a fair draft was written over a half-erased first draft, and names of characters routinely changed between the beginning and end of the same draft. Deciphering this was an arduous task, and perhaps only someone with personal experience of J.R.R. and the evolution of his stories could have made any sense of it; even so, Christopher has admitted to having to occasionally guess at what his father intended.
 
After his father's death, Christopher embarked on organizing the masses of his father's notes, some of them written on odd scraps of paper a half-century earlier. Much of the material was handwritten, frequently a fair draft was written over a half-erased first draft, and names of characters routinely changed between the beginning and end of the same draft. Deciphering this was an arduous task, and perhaps only someone with personal experience of J.R.R. and the evolution of his stories could have made any sense of it; even so, Christopher has admitted to having to occasionally guess at what his father intended.
  
 
With the help of [[Guy Gavriel Kay]] he managed to compile ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' in only four years. During this time he also edited his father's translations of ''[[Sir Gawain and the Green Knight]]'', and ''[[Sir Orfeo]]''. He also worked on the ''[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings|Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings]]'' which was first published in [[1975]] as ''[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings]]'' in ''[[A Tolkien Compass]]''.
 
With the help of [[Guy Gavriel Kay]] he managed to compile ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' in only four years. During this time he also edited his father's translations of ''[[Sir Gawain and the Green Knight]]'', and ''[[Sir Orfeo]]''. He also worked on the ''[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings|Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings]]'' which was first published in [[1975]] as ''[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings]]'' in ''[[A Tolkien Compass]]''.
  
Christopher spent the years after continuing to study his father's works and taking the responsibilities of the [[Tolkien Estate]]. He recorded portions of ''The Silmarillion'' in [[1977]] and [[1978]] which was issued by Caedmon Records, New York. In [[1979]] he wrote about his father's illustrations and drawings for their publication in Tolkien calendars and ''[[Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien]]''. Through [[1980]] and [[1983]] Christopher edited ''[[Unfinished Tales]]'', ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', ''[[The Monsters and the Critics|The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays]]'', and ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]'' which was the first volume in his twelve volume series of ''[[The History of Middle-earth]]'', the last of which was published in [[1996]]. In 1998 he edited a new edition of ''[[Tree and Leaf]]'' including the poem [[Mythopoeia]]. In [[2007]], he edited ''[[The Children of Húrin]]''. His latest publications have been the editing of ''[[The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún]]'' ([[2009]]), ''[[The Fall of Arthur]]'' ([[2013]]), and ''[[Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary ]]'' ([[2014]]).
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Christopher spent the years after continuing to study his father's works and taking the responsibilities of the [[Tolkien Estate]]. He recorded portions of ''The Silmarillion'' in [[1977]] and [[1978]] which was issued by Caedmon Records, New York. In [[1979]] he wrote about his father's illustrations and drawings for their publication in Tolkien calendars and ''[[Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien]]''. Through [[1980]] and [[1983]] Christopher edited ''[[Unfinished Tales]]'', ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', ''[[The Monsters and the Critics|The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays]]'', and ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]'' which was the first volume in his twelve volume series of ''[[The History of Middle-earth]]'', the last of which was published in [[1996]]. In 1998 he edited a new edition of ''[[Tree and Leaf]]'' including the poem [[Mythopoeia]]. In [[2007]], he edited ''[[The Children of Húrin]]''. His latest publications have been the editing of ''[[The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún]]'' ([[2009]]), ''[[The Fall of Arthur]]'' ([[2013]]), and ''[[Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary ]]'' ([[2014]]
 
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In 2016, Christopher Tolkien was awarded the [[Wikipedia:Bodley Medal|Bodley Medal]], the [[Wikipedia:Bodleian Libraries|Bodleian Libraries]]' highest honour, for his "''editorial work on his father's manuscripts''" and his "''academic career at the [[University of Oxford]]''".<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/news/2016/nov-03|articlename=Editor and Scholar Christopher Tolkien awarded Bodley Medal|dated=3 November 2016|website=[http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/ bodleian.ox.ac.uk]|accessed=6 November 2016}}</ref>
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In August [[2017]], Christopher Tolkien resigned from his appointment as director of the Tolkien Estate.<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://beta.companieshouse.gov.uk/company/07842430/officers|articlename=The Tolkien Estate Limited, Officers|dated=|website=[http://beta.companieshouse.gov.uk/ Companies House] |accessed=14 November 2017}}</ref><ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://tolkienbrasil.com/noticias/sobre-livros/christopher-tolkien-resignou-a-direcao-da-tolkien-estate/|articlename= Christopher Tolkien deixa Tolkien Estate|dated=|website=[http://tolkienbrasil.com/ Tolkien Brasil]|accessed=15 November 2017}}</ref>
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Christopher Tolkien died on [[16 January]], [[2020]].<ref>{{webcite|author=Laurent Amalric avec e.e.|articleurl=http://www.varmatin.com/culture/christopher-le-fils-de-jrr-tolkien-sest-eteint-dans-le-var-a-lage-de-95-ans-448318|articlename=Christopher, le fils de J.R.R. Tolkien, s'est éteint dans le Var à l'âge de 95 ans|dated=16 January 2020|website=[http://www.varmatin.com/ Var-martin]|accessed=20 January 2020}}</ref>
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==Response to adaptations==
 
==Response to adaptations==
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*[[2013]]: ''[[The Fall of Arthur]]'' (editor)
 
*[[2013]]: ''[[The Fall of Arthur]]'' (editor)
 
*[[2014]]: ''[[Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary]]'' (editor)
 
*[[2014]]: ''[[Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary]]'' (editor)
*[[2017]]: ''[[Beren and Lúthien]]'' (editor)
 
*[[2018]]: ''[[The Fall of Gondolin]]'' (editor)
 
  
 
===Articles===
 
===Articles===
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*[[1980]]: [[Mallorn 14|''Mallorn'' 14]]
 
*[[1980]]: [[Mallorn 14|''Mallorn'' 14]]
 
** "''The Silmarillion'', by J.R.R. Tolkien: A brief account of the book and its making"
 
** "''The Silmarillion'', by J.R.R. Tolkien: A brief account of the book and its making"
*[[1982]]: [[Quettar 13]], Feb. 1982, pp. 8-9
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*[[1982]]: ''Quettar'' 13, Feb. 1982, pp. 8-9
**"The Tengwar Numerals". Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT'); rptd. ''Beyond Bree'' Dec. 1984, p. 1. Further, untitled, explanation of Tengwar numerals by Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT 10 March 1982'), in [[Quettar 14]], May 1982, pp. 6-7.
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**"The Tengwar Numerals". Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT'); rptd. ''Beyond Bree'' Dec. 1984, p. 1. Further, untitled, explanation of Tengwar numerals by Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT 10 March 1982'), in ''Quettar'' 14, May 1982, pp. 6-7.
*[[1983]]: [[Amon Hen 63|''Amon Hen'' 63]], August 1983, p. 4
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*[[1983]]: ''Amon Hen'' 63, August 1983, p. 4
 
**"...Future Publishing". Reproduced as 'Statement by Christopher Tolkien' in ''Beyond Bree'', November 1983, p. 2.
 
**"...Future Publishing". Reproduced as 'Statement by Christopher Tolkien' in ''Beyond Bree'', November 1983, p. 2.
 
*[[1984]]:  [[Amon Hen 70|''Amon Hen'' 70]], November 1984, p.3.
 
*[[1984]]:  [[Amon Hen 70|''Amon Hen'' 70]], November 1984, p.3.
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*[[2012]]: ''Le Monde'', 5 July
 
*[[2012]]: ''Le Monde'', 5 July
 
**"Tolkien, l'anneau de la discorde" by Raphaëlle Rérolle (interview; [http://www.worldcrunch.com/culture-society/my-father-039-s-quot-eviscerated-quot-work-son-of-hobbit-scribe-j.r.r.-tolkien-finally-speaks-out/hobbit-silmarillion-lord-of-rings/c3s10299/ English translation])
 
**"Tolkien, l'anneau de la discorde" by Raphaëlle Rérolle (interview; [http://www.worldcrunch.com/culture-society/my-father-039-s-quot-eviscerated-quot-work-son-of-hobbit-scribe-j.r.r.-tolkien-finally-speaks-out/hobbit-silmarillion-lord-of-rings/c3s10299/ English translation])
*[[2016]]: ''[[The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun]]''
 
**"Note on the text"
 
  
 
===Ephemera===
 
===Ephemera===
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*[[1978]]: ''J.R.R. Tolkien: Of the Darkening of Valinor, and Of the Flight of the Noldor, from The Silmarillion, read by Christopher Tolkien''. New York: Caedmon Records TC 1579, 1978. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
 
*[[1978]]: ''J.R.R. Tolkien: Of the Darkening of Valinor, and Of the Flight of the Noldor, from The Silmarillion, read by Christopher Tolkien''. New York: Caedmon Records TC 1579, 1978. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
 
*[[1992]]:''The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm’s Son'', Read by J.R.R.Tolkien and Christopher Tolkien, HarperCollins Audiobooks.
 
*[[1992]]:''The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm’s Son'', Read by J.R.R.Tolkien and Christopher Tolkien, HarperCollins Audiobooks.
*[[2007]]: ''The Children of Húrin Audiobook'', Preface and introduction Read by Christopher Tolkien. HarperCollins Audiobooks.
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*[[2007]]: The Children of Húrin Audiobook, Preface and introduction Read by Christopher Tolkien . HarperCollins Audiobooks.
  
 
==Family Tree==
 
==Family Tree==
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* [[:Category:Books by Christopher Tolkien|Books by Christopher Tolkien]]
 
* [[:Category:Books by Christopher Tolkien|Books by Christopher Tolkien]]
 
* [[:Category:Images of Christopher Tolkien|Images of Christopher Tolkien]]
 
* [[:Category:Images of Christopher Tolkien|Images of Christopher Tolkien]]
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.thehalloffire.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=28&t=2250&sid=8cd1494eb408ae53eef603baf6be5ec6 History of the Silmarillion vs. History of Middle-earth] at thehalloffire.net (Quote a letter of [[Christopher Tolkien]])
 
  
 
{{references}}
 
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