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Tolkien had noted the ambiguity of the word "Celtic" as an arbitrary catch-all term:
- "'Celtic' of any sort is, nonetheless, a magic bag, into which anything may be put, and out of which almost anything may come."
- ― Inauguration speech at the University of Oxford
Celtic influences on the legendarium
Tolkien claimed knowledge of Celtic languages and legends, but expressed a dislike in Celtic legends and denied that his legendarium is "Celtic".
While the Westron world displays Germanic and Old English elements, Tolkien mentioned that the survival of traces of the older language of the Stoors and the Bree-men in Eriador resembled the survival of Celtic elements in England. Tolkien said to the Dutch Translator, Max Schuchart, that there were "'Celtic' elements in Buckland and East-farthing names."
These analogies are present mostly relating to Pre-Númenóreans and the Stoor hobbits, which is evident in placenames such as "Bree" and the personal names of the Bucklanders. According to Paula Marmor, the Celtic elements in Stoorish names represent an earlier language, related to that of the Bree-landers.
Other names having (or have been suggested as having) a Celtic influence include:
Edward Crankshaw, a reader for Allen & Unwin, was assigned to review the current draft of the "Quenta Silmarillion" in 1937. He had a mostly favourable attitude to it, but he said that the names were "eye-splitting Celtic names". Tolkien denied Celtic influences in his Elvish names, and he showed distaste for Celtic words.
- “Mad” Elves and “Elusive Beauty”: Some Celtic Strands of Tolkien’s Mythology by Dimitra Fimi
- Tolkien influenced by Irish mythology? by Michael Martinez
- ↑ Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide, pp. 148-52
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, "English and Welsh"
- ↑ "Other credits", TolkienBooks.net (accessed 15 February 2017)
- ↑ Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, p. 26
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation"
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 93
- ↑ Jim Allan (1978), An Introduction to Elvish, "An etymological excursion among the Shire folk"
- ↑ Jim Allan (1978), An Introduction to Elvish, "Giving of names"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 19, (dated 16 December 1937)